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Copyright 1921, by 
Frederic Fairchild Sherman 

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Malbone, Edward 

Charles Harris 1 p. . . 

Nicholas Bowman . . . : j P 


Copley, John Singleton 

Self Portrait 7 

Van Dyck, James 

James Lyon 7 

Brown, J. Henry 

President Buchanan 10 


President Tyler . . . . • 10 

Fulton, Robert 

Samuel Beach 26 

'^ Duval, Ambrose 

Gov. Wm. C. C. Claiborne 26 

Bounetheau, Henry B. 

Henry M. Manigault 42 

Baker, George A., Jr. 
^ Andrew Jackson 42 

\ Birch, William 
vl George Washington 58 

Petticolas, E. a. 

George Washington 58 

Thornton, Dr. William 

George Washington 62 

Ramage, John 

George Washington 62 

Clark, Alvan 

Barnabas Clark 70 



GiMBREDE, Thomas 

Mr. Schley 70 

Bridport, H. 

Caroline Dugan 74 

Inman, Henry 

Portrait of a Lady 74 

Jarvis, John Wesley 

Miss Jarvis 90 

Allston, Washington 

Captain A. H. Pray 90 

Trott, Benjamin 

Lewis Adams 106 

Peale, James 

Mrs. John P. Van Ness 106 

Andre, Major John 

Margaret Shippen 122 

Staigg, Richard M. 

John Lothrop Motley 122 

Pelham, Henry 

Jonathan Clark 138 

Savage, Edward 

Self Portrait 138 

Field, Robert 

George Washington 154 

James Sargent Ewing, M.D 154 

Wood, Joseph 

Portrait of a Man 158 

Munger, George 

Self Portrait 158 

Hill, Pamela 

Rebecca Dean Salisbury 166 

Williams, Henry 

Samuel Larkin 166 


RuEL Pardee Tolma 


7 HE present volume lists as many of the portrait 
pai?7ters in miniature^ both native Americans 
and foreign painters working in America^ from the 
earliest times until 1850, as it has been possible to 
enumerate. It includes not only ivory miniatures 
but small portraits in oil and water color as well. 


The word "miniature" comes from "minium" meaning 
"vermilion," the color used by the illuminators of manu- 
scripts as a border to their decorations. At what time a like- 
ness with a vermilion border about it was detached from the 
page of vellum and used as a portable portrait is both difficult 
and useless to determine. Suffice it to say that the dozen 
undoubted miniatures by the first great miniature painter, 
Hans Holbein, were all painted on vellum, or the backs of 
playing cards, and that was the material generally used in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in England by such men 
as Nicholas Hillyarde, Isaac and Peter Olliver, John Hoskins^ 
Samuel Cooper, Thomas Flatman and Lawrence Crosse. 

It was not until the beginning of the eighteenth century 
that ivory was used as a painting surface, but upon its adop- 
tion it was used almost exclusively. Samuel Shelly, John 
Smart, Andrew Robertson and Richard Cosway, to mention 
a few of the finest English miniature painters of the period, 
painted almost entirely on ivory. The change was not partic- 
ularly for the better. Painting in water color on thin sheets of 
ivory gummed at the corners to a piece of card is a most pre- 
carious method. The color may be ruined or entirely removed 
by the touch of a moistened finger and the ivory, too, is most 
sensitive to changes of temperature. Hung near a fireplace 
the ivory is apt to buckle or split. As in the case of other 
painting, direct sunlight is certain to afl^ect the colors. Per- 
haps the best way of keeping the small portraits is in a cab- 
inet that can be covered when they are not beino; enjoyed. 

Glass at the back as well as the face is an excellent manner of 
framing ivory miniatures. 

In more recent times the derivation of the word "mini- 
ature" has been lost or confused with the word "minute," 
and the word in its modern sense means simply a small 


Miniature painting in America started with no more than 
an ornamental purpose for bracelets, snuff box tops, and 
watch lids. Even Charles Willson Peale painted miniatures 
to serve this end. Finally it developed into small portraiture 
worthy of a special frame. The leisure of the people of the 
new republic was generously expended upon portraits. "The 
country was at this time, mad on the subject generally," 
writes Mr. John Hill Morgan in his excellent article on 
Saint-Memin, and portraiture in oils, miniature and engrav- 
ing flourished in a manner it has never since attained. 
Stuart, Sully, Trumbull, Trott, Malbone, Fraser, the Peale 
family — these and many lesser men could not supply the 
demand. Englishmen like Miles, Birch, Sharpless and Field 
came to the country and painted with success, and countless 
Frenchmen varying from the excellence of Saint-Memin to 
mediocrity found full employment. 

The movement was a perfectly natural, spontaneous 
growth. In many cases the craftsmanship is impeccable and 
would cause astonishment to any one not familiar with the 
period. For the artists were trained — a number had the 
advantage of European training but for the most part they 
trained themselves. 

The later miniatures were painted on larger surfaces. 
Some were rectangular in shape, often they were painted on 
paper and on cabinet size wood panels. 

Of all the rich variety of portraits produced by the early 
American miniature painters many compare with the work 
of European masters in the art. Four names stand out above 
the rest — Malbone, Fraser, Trott and Field. Miniatures by 
the eminently artistic Edward Malbone have long been 
eagerly sought after. Less known but of high worth is the 
serious art of Charles Fraser. The brilliant Benjamin Trott 
ranks with Edward Malbone and Charles Fraser. These 
three artists were native Americans. The fourth was an 
Englishman who spent almost his entire artistic career in 
this country and Nova Scotia. His name was Robert Field. 
His miniatures are superb. 

Each of these artists in his different way raised the smaller 
portraiture to the dignity of the larger. 

Portrait painters in oil also often painted miniatures that 
compare with those of the artists who were exclusively minia- 
ture painters. Among these were Henry Inman, John 
Wesley Jarvis, Matthew Harris Jouett and Thomas Sully. 

John Trumbull's miniatures are painted in oils as are a 
number by Copley. 

At last a decline set in but it was not because the impulse 
had spent its force. The doom of the miniature came with 
the advent of the daguerreotype and Henry Shumway finally 
reduced to tinting photographs is symbolical of the change. 
The present book includes only those artists working before 
1850 when the photograph had already numbered the days 
of the small portrait. 


My indebtedness is great. Without the aid I have received 
this undertaking would have been practically impossible. 
At the outset I wish to thank Mr. Ruel P. Tolman and 

Mr. F. Fairchild Sherman. To Mr. Tolman is due the sug- 
gestion of the book- — to Mr. Sherman its publication. 

In the way of assistance I must speak first of Miss Alice 
R. H. Smith, Mr. Harry Piers and Mr. John Hill Morgan. 
The information I have received from them, their unfailing 
responses and their time ungrudgingly given must receive 
from me my fullest public acknowledgement and my heartiest 

I wish to thank, too, all those who have answered my 
questions or have allowed their treasures to be reproduced. 
My indebtedness extends in four instances to England. 

Mr. Walter L. Ehrich has been of especial service. 

My less formal thanks must be given the curators and 
secretaries of the twenty-two art and historical associations 
who have given me aid in many ways, it is not likely that 
another writer could have had more generous assistance. 

Theodore Bolton 


ACRES, John Edward 

Flourished 181^-1826. 

Miniature painter. 

Acres studied at the Royal Academy. He came 
to Sydney, Cape Breton County, early in 181 5 to see 
about a land inheritance. Mr. Harry Piers in a com- 
munication to the writer states: "From about Septem- 
ber, 1 81 5, till 1 816 or later he was in Halifax but re- 
turned to Sydney about 18 17. He went again to Hali- 
fax sometime before 1823, and apparently was still 
painting miniatures in Halifax in 1826. He committed 
suicide at Halifax soon afterwards." 

Mr. Wilkie? inscribed on back: "Halifax, Jan., 1823, 

Acres, Painter." Mr. George Ritchie, Halifax, N. S. 

AGATE, Alfred T. 

b. 1818; d. January 5, 1846, New York City. 
Miniature painter. 

Alfred T. Agate was the younger brother of the 
painter F. S. Agate. He travelled with Captain Wilkes' 
expedition making drawings for the government service 
at that time and later. Francis Emmons wrote a brief 
account of his life. 
1-3. Three miniature portraits. 

National Academy Ex. 1837-38. 
AKIN, James 

b. about I'/yj South Carolina; d. July 8, 184.6^ Phila- 
Engraver^ caricaturist and portrait painter in water colors. 
He engraved illustrations in Salem in 1804 and in 
1805 he was in Newbury. In 1808 he settled in Phila- 

Acres — Akin: 2 

delphia becoming in turn designer, pharmacist, res- 
tauranteur and patent draughtsman. See: "The Gran- 
ite Magazine," October, 1898. 

1. Thomas Leavitt. 

2, Hannah (Melcher) Leavitt. 

ALLEN, Sarah Lockhart 

b. August 2, lygj-, Salefn; d. there July 11^ i^yj. 
Miniature painter and portrait draughtsman in pastel. 

In Felt's "Annals of Salem" there is the following 
note for 1820: "Portraits of full size are executed by 
Miss Sarah Allen in crayons. She is a native of this 
city." The following portraits are all miniatures. 

1. Catherine Princess oi Nassau, after Morelese. 

Essex Institute. 

2. Charlotte Story Forrester, 1832. 33^' x 3. 

Essex Institute. 

3. Unknown boy. Essex Institute. 

4. Unknown woman. Essex Institute. 

5. Thorwaldsen. copy.^ Boston Museum. 

ALLSTON, Washington 

b. November 5, I779-, Brook Green Dofnain^ Waccamaw 
Co., S. C; d. July 9, 1S4.J., Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Historical, religious and portrait painter. 

Graduating from Harvard in 1800 Allston went to 
Charleston, South Carolina and in 1801 sailed with 
Malbone for England where they studied in London 
under Benjamin West. In 1804 Allston went to Paris 
and Rome. He returned to the United States in 1809. 
In 1 81 1 he went to London with Morse. In 1817 he 
revisited Paris. He was elected R. A. in 181 8. 

Allen — Allston: 3 

1. Captain A. S. Pray. Rhode Island School of Design. 

2. Mrs. Huyer. 2^ x 134. 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey, N. Y. 

3. John Harris, rectangular. 2^4 x 2 ^. Painted in 1809. 

Boston Museum. 

AMES, Daniel F. 

Flourished 1841-18^2^ Nciv York. 
Miniature painter. 

AMES, Ezra 

b. iy68; d. Feb. 23, 1836. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Ezra Ames started as a coach painter. He later took 
to portrait painting with such success that his picture 
of Governor George Clinton, exhibited at the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy, received particular notice. He painted 
a series of some of the members of the New York State 

1. Jesse Hawley. 2i^Zy^- rectangle. 

N. Y. Historical Society. 

2. Catherine Louisa Douw Townsend. 3 in. oval. 

Albany Institute. 

3. John Fondey Townsend. 3 in. oval. 

Albany Institute. 

4. Margaret Livingston Douw. 3 in. oval. 

Albany Institute. 

5. John Fondey, Jr. 3 in. oval. Albany Institute. 

6. John Fondey Townsend, M. D. 4 in. oval. 

Albany Institute. 

7. Catherine Douw Gansevoort. 4 in. oval. 

xAlbany Institute. 
Ames, D. — Ames, E: 4 

AMES, Julius R. 
Flourished 1834-1850. 
Miniature painter. 
He was the son of Ezra Ames and worked in Albany. 

ANDERSON, Alexander 

b. April 21 y 177 5 y New York; d. January //, iSyo, Jersey 

Wood engraver. 

Alexander Anderson is rated as the first American 
wood engraver. He was a copper plate engraver as 
early as 1794 but to please his father he studied medicine 
at Columbia College, obtained his degree in 1796 and 
practised until 1798. In 1797 he resumed engraving. 
In 1820 he devoted himself almost entirely to engraving 
on wood taking the work of Thomas Bewick as his 
model. His work in miniature is rare. See F. M. Burr: 
"Life of Alexander Anderson," 1893. 
I. Julia Malvinia Anderson. 1820. 2^<4X2>^. 

N. Y. Historical Society. 
ANDRE, John 

b. lys^i London^ d. October ^, iy8o, Tappan on the 

Major in the British Army and amateur artist. 

Major Andre who was executed as a spy during the 
American Revolution, was an amateur artist of great 
ability. He painted water color landscapes; assisted at 
the fetes in Philadelphia by drawing a costume for the 
"Ladies of the Blended Rose;" probably carved the 
wooden figure of a British dragoon in the Wister House 
in Philadelphia; and undoubtedly designed scenery and 

Ames — Andre: 5 

drops for the small theatre in Southwark. He also 
painted a few miniatures and in a letter, speaking of his 
capture in 1775 at Lancaster he said: "I have been 
taken prisoner by the Americans and stripped of every- 
thing except the picture of Honora which I concealed in 
my mouth. Preserving that I yet think myself fortu- 
nate." This miniature was of his own painting. 

1. Miss Peggy Shippen. Pencil. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

2. Honora Sneyd. 1769. 

ANDREWS, Ambrose 

Flourished 182^-18^2. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

From 1829 to 1831 he was in Troy, N. Y. He later 
moved to Saint Louis and then to New York. 
I. General Sam Houston. N. \. Exhibition, 1849. 

ANNELLI, Francesco 

Flourished 18 41-18"/ 8^ New York. 
Historical, portrait and miniature painter. 

ARMSTRONG, William G. 

b. 182J, Montgomery Co., Pa.; still living in Philadelphia 

in 1880. 
Engraver and portrait painter in water colors. 

Little is known of William G. Armstrong except that 
he came to Philadelphia, was a pupil of Longacre, drew 
small portraits and finally became a line engraver. For 
Longacre's ''National Portrait Gallery" he engraved 
portraits of John McLane after Sully, Winfield Scott 
after Ingham and Thomas Pinckney after Trumbull. 

Andrews — Armstrong: 6 

I. Francis Hopkinson. Water color copy of the portrait 
by Pine. Ehrich Galleries. 


Flourished 1841-1842^ Boston. 

Miniature painter. 

There was an Ezra Atherton, a wood engraver who 
worked between 1 830-1 835 and he may have been 
identical with E. Atherton the miniature painter who is 
mentioned in the Boston directories for 1841-1842. 

BADGER, Joseph W. 

Flourished i8j2-iSj8, New York. 

Miniature painter. 

Joseph W. Badger worked in New York City. It 
would be well to remember that there were two portrait 
painters of the same name living a little later in Boston. 
Thomas Badger lived there from 1 836 to 1 859 and James 
W. Badger lived there from 1845 to 1846. There was 
also a John C. Badger in Philadelphia making crayon 
portraits in 1855. 

I. Mrs. Cherry. N. A. Exhibition, 1837. 

BAKER, George Augustus 

b. lydo^ Strassburg^ Germany; d. after iSjo {New York?), 
Miniature painter. 

The father of George A. Baker, Jr. 

BAKER, George Augustus, Jr. 

b. 1 82 1 New York; d. the7r April 2, 18S0. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

At sixteen George A. Baker, Jr., became a miniature 
painter with such success that he painted one hundred 

Atherton — Baker: 7 


S s 

5 M ^ 

and forty miniatures during his first year. His work in 
this branch belongs to the earlier part of his career — he 
later took up portrait painting in oils. In 1 844-1 846 
he studied in Europe. In 1851 he was elected N. A. 
1-4. Four Miniatures. N. A. Exhibition, N. Y., 1838. 

5. Mrs. R. W. Meade, after Stuart. 

6. General Andrew Jackson. 4x31^. 

The Ehrich Galleries. 
BALDWIN, William 

Flourished iSzy-iS^dy New Orleans. 
Miniature painter. 

BALL, Thomas 

b. June J ^ 18 ig^ Charlestown, Mass.; d. iqii. 
Sculptor and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 


b. //i^p, France; d. ajter I'/go. 

Miniature painter. 

Barbiere-Walbonne was trained in the studio of 
Louis David. He was sent to the United States by Louis 
XVI to paint a miniature of George Washington and to 
deliver to the first President his majesty's present of the 
Badge of the Order of Saint-Esprit. He painted a 
replica of this miniature for himself which is the one 
listed below. 

I. George Washington. Mr. C. Duhamel, 1881. 


Flourished 1820^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

I . Robert P. Lee, 1 820. Exhibition, Newport, R. L, 1 890. 

Baldwin — Barker: 8 

BARRALET, John James 

b. about 174"/ y Dublin; d. January 16, fS/^, Philadelphia. 

Engraver and water-color painter of landscapes and portraits. 

He went to London about 1770, returned to Ireland 

in 1779 and sailed for the United States in 1795, settling 

in Philadelphia. 

BARRATT, Thomas E. 

Flourished iSjy-iS^p^ Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

He may have been identical with or a relation to 
Edward Barratt who painted miniatures in Dublin in 

1-3. Three portraits in miniature. 

Penn. Academy, 1847-48. 
4. J. S. Da Solle. Lithographed by A. Newsam. 

BEARD, George 

Flourished 1S4.0., Cincinnati^ Ohio. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished ///p, Charleston, S. C. 

Miniature painter. 

Nothing is known of "Mr. Belzons a French gentle- 
man" who painted miniatures in Charleston, South 
Carolina beyond the fact that he was the first drawing 
instructor, in 1799, of Thomas Sully whose sister he 
married. The teacher and pupil came to blows and 
Sully left after a brief period. Dunlap remarks: "he 
was a very poor painter." 

Barralet — Belzons: 9 


Often erroneously spelled '' Bembridge.'' 

b. May 20, 1744-, Philadelphia; d. there February^ 181 2. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Benbridge went to Italy where he studied under 
Anton Mengs and Pompeio Battoni and there attracted 
the attention of James Boswell, the biographer of Dr. 
Johnson, who commissioned him to paint a portrait of 
General Paoli. Tn 1769 he moved to London and was 
befriended by Benjamin West. In 1770 he painted a 
portrait of Benjamin Franklin that was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy. July of that year he returned to 
America. He was elected a member of the American 
Philosophical Society in 1771. Declining health led 
him to visit Charleston, South Carolina, in 1779 and 
here he painted many portraits now masquerading 
under the name of Copley. About the end of the century 
he moved to Norfolk, Virginia. His remaining years 
he spent in Philadelphia. 

I. Self-portrait. 

BINGHAM, George Caleb 

b. March 20^ iSii, Augusta Co.^ Va.; d. July 7, iSyij, 

Kansas City, Mo. 
Portrait and genre painter. 

In St. Louis Bingham met Chester Harding in 1820. 
In 1827 he studied law and was a lawyer, politician and 
cabinet maker before finally adopting the career of an 
artist. He met Harding again in 1827. He went to 
Dusseldorf in 1857. He travelled in the eastern cities 
until 1877 when he was made professor of art in the 
University of Missouri at Columbia, Missouri. See Fern, 

Benbridge — Bingham: 10 

Helen Rusk: "George Caleb Bingham," Kansas City, 

1. John Quincy Adams. Cabinet-size. On wood. 

G. B. Rollins Estate, Columbia, Mo., 1917. 

2. John Howard Payne. 9x7. Water-color. 

Mrs. J. V. C. Karnes, 191 7. 
Flourished 1784, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

He inserted an advertisement in Loudon's "New 
York Packet," for November 25, 1784. 

BIRCH, Thomas 

b. 1787^ London; d. January /^, 18^1, Philadelphia. 

Landscape, marine and miniature painter. 

Thomas Birch came to the United States with his 
father in 1793 and settled near Philadelphia painting 
small profile portraits. In 1807 he was in Delaware. He 
then started painting marine views with ships and 
finally about 181 2, also took up historical painting. 
He must, however, have continued miniature painting 
for in the catalogue of the Pennsylvania Academy Ex- 
hibition of 1 817 he is listed as a "Landscape and Minia- 
ture Painter, Lombard above Tenth Street, Philadel- 
phia." He was a member of the Pennsylvania Academy 
and an Associate N. A. 

BIRCH, William Russell 

b. April 9, 7/55, Warwick, England; d. August 7, i8j4, 

Miniature painter in enamel, etcher and engraver. 

William Birch exhibited forty-one miniatures at the 
Royal Academy during 1781 and 1782. Sir Joshua 

Birch, B.— Birch, W.: 11 







<— 1 










Reynolds employed him to make miniature copies of his 
paintings and his interest in the technical side of his art 
was such that he discovered a red brown enamel which 
he afterwards often used in the backgrounds of his 
miniatures. F'or this discovery he received, in 1785, a 
medal from the Society of Arts. In 1791 he published a 
book of his engravings after pictures by Richard Wilson, 
Thomas Rowlandson and other artists called "Delices 
de la Grande Bretagne." In 1794 he came to the 
United States and settled in Philadelphia where, as he 
himself wrote: "Mr. Bingham was my first employer 
in America, to instruct his two daughters . 
attended by one of their friends. I then built me a 
furnace, painted a full-size picture in enamel of Mr. 
Bingham and a smaller one for Mrs. Bingham." Shortly 
after he met with great success, gave up the lessons, 
painted about sixty enamel copies after Stuart's Wash- 
ington besides excellent original work in miniature, and 
engraved two volumes of landscapes and city scenes 
after drawings by various artists. John Neagle painted 
a portrait of him in his old age. Extracts from an un- 
published autobiography of William Birch are printed 
in A. H. Wharton's "Heirlooms." 

[. George Washington. Enamel on copper, signed 
" W. B. 1796." Mr. C. Allen Munn, New York. 

I. George Washington. 3^ x 3. On copper. 

Mr. Samuel P. Avery, 1909. 

]. George W'ashington. Enamel. 

Mrs. S.W. Edwards, 1 881. 

|.. George Washington, 1796. 

Mr. J. H. McHenry, Baltimore, 1881. 

Although disfigured said to be a very fine example. 

Birch — Continued: 12 

5- George Washington, 1797- On copper. 

Mr. C. G. Barney, Richmond, 1881. 

6. George Washington. Enamel. 

Mr. Lyle, Dublin, Ireland, 1881. 

7. George Washington, 1796. Enamel. Engraved by 
J. G. Walker. 

8. George Washington, after Stuart. 

Pennsyh^ania /\cademy, 1814. 

9. Thomas Jefferson. Enamel, profile. 

Dr. S. W. Mitchell, Pa., 1898. 
Thomas Jefferson, profile. "Jefferson, G. Stuart, 
Pinx. W. Birch delin. D. Edwin Sc. 1809." 2 3/g x 
This may be identical with the foregoing. 

10. Alexander Hamilton. Enamel. 

Dr. S. W. Mitchell, Pa., 1898. 

11. Lafayette. Enamel after Ary Scheffer. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt 

12. Commodore Decatur. Engraved by Edwin, 1813. 

13. Andrew Jackson. Enamel. 1820. 

14. Joseph Welsh. Enamel. 

15. Clementina Ross. Enamel. 

Mrs. C. S. Bradford, Pa., 1898. 

16. Mrs. Barnes, nee Priscilla Birch. Enamel. 

Mr. W. Birch, Pa., 1898. 

17. Arthur Lee. 23^x2^- i795- 

Historical Society of Penn. 

18. Portrait of a Lady. Enamel. 

Hon. A. G. Ponsonby, England, 1865. 

19. Mrs. Whittaker. Enamel brooch. 3 x 2>^. 

Mr. Albert Rosenthal. 
Birch — Coiitinned: 13 

20. Robert Gilmor. Enamel. 

Mr. C. Allen Munn, New York. 

BISHOP, Thomas 

Flourished 1753-iSsj^ London^ Paris and Philadelphia. 

Miniature painter in enamel. 

Thomas Bishop exhibited five miniatures at the Royal 
Academy between 1787 and 1798. "In 1833," wrote 
John Sartain in his "Reminiscences," "I became 
acquainted with Thomas Bishop the painter in enamel. 
He was very old, a good deal past eighty. 
He resided in Paris at the breaking out of the first 
French Revolution in 1789. He had studied medicine, 
and had also learned the art of painting in enamel while 
there. . . As his life in Paris had been broken up by 
the rising of the French people against their oppressors, 
so afterwards in Portugal his peace was again disturbed 
by the inroad of the all conquering army of the Emperor 
Napoleon." He came to Philadelphia about 1811, took 
a studio in the city and settled in Germantown. One of 
his enamels was a Venus; another, a nymph and a third, 
a night blooming cereus. 

1-4. Four portraits in miniature. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1811. 

c^-G. Two Children's Heads after Boucher. 

BLANCHARD, Mrs. Eliza H. 
Flourished 1843-1846^ Providence^ R. I. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

Birch — Blanchard: 14 

BLANCHARD, Washington 
Flourished 18JI-184J. 
Miniature painter, Bos to n . 

1. William Ellery Channing. Boston Athenaeum, 1834. 

2. Alexander H. Everett. 3>^X4>^. 

N. Y. Historical Society. 

3. John C. Calhoun. 

Mrs. G. S. Holmes, Charleston, S. C. [1902]. 

4. Henry Clay, 1842, Corcoran Gallery of Art. 

5. Abram Aldrich, 1843. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

BOGARDUS, Mrs. William 
b. 1804; d. 18/8. 
Miniature painter. 

Mrs. BoGARDus exhibited miniatures at the National 
Academy Exhibitions from 1842 to 1846. 
I. Reverend J. O. Choules, about 1830. 

Exhibition, Newport, 1890. 

BOGARDUS, William 

b. March 14, 1800, Catskill, N. Y.; d. Jpri/ J, 1874, 

New York. 
Engraver, die sinker and miniature pai7iter. 

BoGARDus exhibited a miniature at the National 
Academy in 1843. 


Flourished 182"/, Philadelphia. 
Amateur miniature painter. 

I. Madame Murat. Copy. Pennsylvania Academy, 1827. 

Blanchard — Bolman: 15 

BOUNETHEAU, Henry Brintnell 

b. December 14, 1797 ■> Charleston^ S. C; d. therey January 

31^ 1877- 
Miniature painter. 

Henry Brintnell Bounetheau was the son of Peter 
Bounetheau, an officer of Huguenot descent who fought 
in the American Army. He received instruction in art 
as a boy but as a young man entered the business firm 
of Dart and Spear and later became an officer in the 
Bank of Charleston. Finally he went into partnership 
with Hamilton Son and Company. After two years the 
partnership dissolved, and, according to the Charleston 
"News and Courier" for February i, 1877, he took "to 
miniature painting for support and displayed so much 
skill that his pictures soon became the rage." He was 
chief accountant with the C. N. Hubert Company for 
many years and held that position at the time of his 
death. He married Miss Julia Clarkson Dupre, and their 
son, Henry Dupre Bounetheau, lost his life in the great 
fire at Jacksonville, and many of the paintings by his 
father were burned at the same time. 

1. Mrs. Middleton. 

Mrs. J. P. K. Bryan, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

2. Mrs. T. Grange Simons. 

Mr. T. M. Waring, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

3. T. Grange Simons, Jr., 1862. 

Dr. T. G. Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

4. James Davidson Legare, U. S. N. 

Mrs. Gadsden King, Charleston, S. C, 1902, 

5. Mrs. Charles Kiddell. 

Miss Kiddell, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

Bounetheau: 16 

6. Charles Allston Pringle. 

Miss Susan Pringle, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

7. Mrs. Alfred T. Ravenel. 

Mrs. James De Sassure, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

8. Honorable James R. Pringle. 

Miss C. P. Ravenel, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

9. William Ravenel. 

Miss C. P. Ravenel, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

10. Miss Ravenel. 

Miss C. P. Ravenel, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

11. William B. Pringle, Jr. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

12. Dr. T. L. Ogier. 

Mrs. Reid Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

13. Mrs. T. L. Ogier. 

Mrs. Reid Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

14. Henry Heyward Manigault. ^.y^x^H- 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

15. William Mason Smith, 1850. 

Miss Alice R. H. Smith, Charleston, S. C. 

16. General Charles C. Pinckney. 

Engraved by A. B. Durand. 

17. Nathaniel Greene. Engraved by J. B. Longacre. 


Flourished about 1810, Pittsburgh^ Pa. 
Portrait painter. 

James R. Lambden wrote Dunlap that Bourdon was 

a French refugee "who painted small portraits in an 

indifferent manner." 

Bounetheau — Bourdon: 17 

Flourished 1802, Boston. 
Portrait painter /?? oils and 7niniature. 


b. 1794^ London^ England; d. ajter iSjJ. 

Portrait and jnitiiatnre painter and engraver. 

A student at the Royal Academy and later under C. 
Wilkin, a miniature painter, Bridport, at Thomas Sully's 
suggestion, sailed for the United States in 1816 and 
settled in Philadelphia. In 1817 he opened an art school 
with his brother, George Bridport, an interior decorator. 
In 1 81 8 he conducted a school for both art and archi- 
tecture with John Haviland. In 18 17 he exhibited three 
water color scenes in Wales and may have revisited the 
British Isles. 

1. Francis Hopkinson. 3x2. Mr. Rose, Pa. 

2. Self-portrait. Pennsylvania Academy, 1826. 

3. Chief Justice Tilghman. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1826. 

4. P. A. Browne. Pennsylvania Academy, 1826. 

5. Thomas Sparks. Pennsylvania Academy, 1826. 

6. Joseph Hopkinson. Alter Stuart. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1826. 

7. A Gentleman. After Raeburn. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1826. 

8. George Bridport. Pennsylvania Academy, 1817. 

9. Miniature. After Reynolds. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1817, 

10. Reverend Henry Conwell. After Neagle. 3^4 x 2 >^ 

cardboard. On the reverse: "H. Bridport, Miniature 

Painter, 122 Chestnut St." Mr. Livingston, Pa. 

Brewster — Bridport: 18 

11. Man resembling Jared Sparks. 3 x 2>^. 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

12. Caroline Dugan. The Ehrich Galleries. 

BRODEAU, Anna Maria 

b. I'/YS^ Philadelphia; d. August^ i'S6^, Washington^ D. C. 
Amateur miniature painter. 

She was the wife of Dr. Thornton whom she married 
in Philadelphia in 1790. 
I. Dr. William Thornton. 

Mr. W. G. Peter, Washington, D. C. 
BROOKS, Samuel 
Flourished ijgo^ Boston. 
Medallist^ miniature and profile painter. 

Samuel Brooks and Joseph Wright inserted the 
following advertisement in the Boston "Independent 
Chronicle" for September 30, 1790: "The public are 
respectfully informed, that the Artists who took the 
most correct likeness of the President of the United 
States and executed a medal of him, are at the House of 
John Coburn, in State Street, and will continue for one 
month only, to take the most correct likenesses in two 
minutes sitting; and finish them for one Dollar to 
three ^ or a miniature from seven to fourteen Dollars. 
The artists cannot stay longer than the time proposed 
having engaged to go to Carolina in the next month." 

BROWERE, Alburtis D. O. 

b. March //, 1814^ Tarry town ^ N. Y.; d. February //, 

1887, Catskill, N. Y. 
Sculptor and painter. 

Browere painted a small profile likeness in water 

Brodeau — Browere: 19 


color about 2}4x^, of his father John Henri Isaac 
Browere the artist who made the life masks of Jef- 
ferson, Gilbert Stuart and many other eminent Ameri- 
cans. In 1897 it was owned by Mrs. F. Van Benschsten, 
Hudson, N. Y. He studied at the National Academy 
and in 184I received a prize of $1000 for a composition 
"Canonicus treating with the English." He later went 
to California and painted mining scenes. 

BROWN, Abby Mason 

Flourished 1S00-1S22. 
Miniature painter. 
I. C. F. Herreshoff. 

Mr. Lewis Herreshoff, Newport, 1920. 


Flourished iS^y. 

Miniature painter. 

Two miniature portraits by G. Brown were exhibited 
at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1847. There was a 
G. Brown who exhibited miniatures at the Royal 
Academy from 1825 to 1839 and it is possible that the 
two artists are identical. Other English artists exhibited 
at the Academy at that time. 

BROWN, George Loring 

b. February 2, iSi/f, Boston; d. June 25, iSSc^, Maiden^ 

Landscape painter. 

At eight years of age Brown began to draw and at 
twelve he was apprenticed to a wood engraver. Finally, 
borrowing a slender allowance he went to London, and 

Brown, A. — Brown, G.: 20 

later Rome. At one time he studied with Isabey. He is 
generally known as a landscape painter but according to 
a newspaper advertisement he painted ''portraits and 
miniatures" in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1838. 

BROWN, Henry I. 

Flourished 18^4.-18^1^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

BROWN, John Henry 

b, 18 18 Lancaster., Pa.; d. i8gi. 

Miniature painter. 

In his own- words Brown "followed business as a 
painter of all work until 1844, about which time my 
career as a miniature painter exclusively commenced." 
He was the boyhood friend of President Buchanan. In 
i860 he painted a portrait of President Lincoln. At the 
Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876 he received 
the medal for ivory miniatures. His son Weaker Brown 
was also a miniature painter. 

1. Horace Binney. 

2. Edwin Booth. 

3. President Buchanan, 5 X334. 

National Gallery, Washington, D. C. 

4. Mrs. J. H. L. Campbell. 33^x2^^. 1845. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

5. Mrs. Seth Craige. Mrs. J. B. Lippincott, Sr., 1898. 

6. Joseph Hopkinson. 

7. Honorable Alexander Henly. 

8. Mrs. Isaac Hazelhurst. 

Mr. G. A. Hazelhurst, Pa., 1898. 

9. Joshua Lippincott. 

Brown, H. — Brown, J.: 21 

10. Mrs. Henry E. Johnston. 

Mrs. Henry E. Johnston, 1898. 

11. Dr. John K. Mitchell. 

12. John N. Reed. 

13. Commodore Stockton. 

14. Joseph Swift. 

15. Mrs. Annie Wiley. 3 x 2^. 1881. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

16. Captain James Wiley. 3 x 2^. 1881. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

17. William Welsh. 

18. Henry F. Williams. 

19. Portrait of a Young Girl. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 
BROWN, Mather 

b. October 7, 1761^ Boston; d. January /, /cVj/, London. 

Portrait and miniature paijiter. 

Mather Brown was the son of a clock maker of 
Boston. About 1780 he settled in London receiving 
instruction from Benjamin West. At the Royal Academy 
Exhibition he exhibited in all 80 pictures. King George 
HI, the Prince Regent, and Viscount Cremorne were 
among the sitters for his oil portraits but no record has 
come to light of some miniatures he painted before 
leaving the United States. 

BROWN, "Mysterious" 
Flourished iSi2^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

"Mysterious" Brown was an Englishman who 
came to New York City and drew chalk portraits and 

painted miniatures. 

Brown, Ma — Brown, My: 22 


Flourished i8jg. New York. 

Miniature painter. 

I. Miniature Portrait of a Gentleman. 

N. A. Exhibition, 1839. 
BURLIN, Richard 

Flourished 184^-186^^ New York. 
Miniature and portrait painter. 


b. lygg Naples., Italy; d. December., 1884^ New York. 

Miniature and portrait painter. 

Calyo, during the political disturbances in Naples, 
fled the city with the father of D. G. Rossetti. In 1829 
he lived at Malta and later in Spain. In 1837 he sailed 
for the United States and established himself on 
Chambers Street New York where he was a host to 
many refugees among them Napoleon III. In 1842 he 
sailed for Spain, became court painter but returned to 
the United States to avoid an arising civic strife. See 
N. Y. Tribune, Dec. 14, 1884. 


b. June 75, i8ij^ Philadelphia; d. April 2j, /<?//, New 

Genre painter and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 
Carlin graduated from the Pennsylvania Institute 
for the Deaf and Dumb in 1825 and then studied in 
New York with John Neagle. In 1838 he visited Lon- 
don and later Paris where he studied under Delaroche. 
He settled permanently in New York City in 1841 and 
took to miniature painting. 

Browning — Carlin: 23 

1. Mrs. William Alston Pringle. 1845. 

Mrs. W. A. Pringle, Charleston, S. C. 

2. Portrait of a Child. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 
CATLIN, George 

b. June 26, 1796^ JVilkesbarre, Pa.; d. December 2j^ 

1822, Jersey City, N. J. 
Author and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Better known for his book on the North American 
Indian, which he both wrote and illustrated, George 
Catlin started as a lawyer and was admitted to the bar 
in Litchfield. He then entered West Point and finally 
moved to Philadelphia to study art where he is listed in 
the directories as a miniature painter. In Albany he 
painted a portrait of De Witt Clinton. In 1824 he was 
in Hartford and in 1825 in New York. He was elected 
N. A. in the latter year. 

1. Captain Morgan, U. S. N. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1822. 

2. Self Portrait. 

3. Miniature Portrait of a Lady. 

4. Miniature Portrait of a Gentleman. 

5. Napoleon, after L. Mansion, 2>^x i^/i. 

Mr. E. Biddle, Pa. 

6. Timothy Pickering. "Engraved by Longacre from a 
miniature by G. Catlin in the possession of W. Meredith 
Esqre Philadelphia 1822." 


Miniature painter, 1836. 

I. Andrew Jackson, Signed "S. M. Charles." 

Col. W. Rives, U. S. A. 1897. 
Catlin — Charles: 24 



Flourished lySj, Baltimore. 
Miniature painter. 

"Mr. Chesdebien, Miniature Painter, announces that 
he will be at Captain Harrison's, Market Street for a 
short stay and that he will paint likenesses for 3 guineas" 
etc. — "Maryland Gazette and Baltimore Advertiser," 
November 7, 1783. 


Flourished lyg^-iSoo Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

John Wesley Jarvis, quoted by Dunlap, speaks of 

"Clark, a miniature painter" as living in Philadelphia 

during his school days. 

CLARK, Alvax 

b. March 6", 1S04., Ashfield, Mass.; d. August /p, /(?<?/, 

Cambridge, Mass. 
Engraver, maker of telescopic lenses, and portrait painter in 
oils and miniature. 
Self taught, Clark worked as an engraver for a short 
time in Boston and later in Providence, Fall River and 
New York. His miniatures were all painted after 1835 
He made the first achromatic lenses in the United States 

1. Chester Harding, N. A. Exhibition, 1837 

2. Mrs. Henry Smith, rectangular. 2^/i^~^^- ^^J^ 

Boston Museum 

3. Mrs. Alvan Clark. 3 x 2 H- The Ehrich Galleries 

4. Barnabas Clark. Worcester Art Museum 

Chesdebien — Clark: 25 

5- Ann Hill Blake. 1836. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

6. Mrs. H. B. Humphrey. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

7. Abram Clark, father of Alvan Clark, 

Mr. T. H. Gage. Worcester, Mass. 

CLOXXEY, James Goodwyx 

b. Januarv 2S, 1S12, Lvcerpool^ England; d. October 7, 

iSdy^ Binghamto?jy N. Y. 
Genre and tniniature painter. 

Cloxxey started painting miniatures in New York 
in 1834, and exhibited at the National Academy during 
1841-1852. In 184I he lived at Peekskill, in 1844 he 
drew on stone for Childs and Inman in Philadelphia and 
in 1852 he was living in New Rochelle. He was elected 
N. A. in 1834. 


Flourished 18J/-1S40, Halifax^ N. S. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

Clow came from Europe to Halifax in 1837 and took 

a studio for a time in the Exchange Coffee House. He 

revisited Halifax in 1840. 

I. Hon. Richard John Uniacke. Rectangular, atter 

Robert Field's oil portrait. Signed "J. Clow, 1831." 

Lt. Col. C. J. Uniacke, Southsea, England. 

1. Temple Stanvere Piers. 

]Mr. W. G. Brookfield, Halifax, N. S. 

Clonnev — Clow: 26 


COLLAS, Louis D. 

Flourished 1818-1828, New Orleans. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

Dr. Cline of New Orleans writes: "Louis Collasisone 

of the best of the early American miniature painters. 

. He was painting portraits in miniature and oil 

in 1820 and we can find nothing about him after 1828." 

I, Miss Ewing, 181 8. 

Mrs. J. S. Buist, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 


Flourished i'jy8-i'j8o, New York. 
Profile miniature painter. 

He inserted advertisements in the "New York Gazette 

and Weekly Mercury" for November 9, 1778, and in the 

"Royal Gazette" for May 10, 1780. 


181 1. Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Miniature painter. 

CoMiNGO was a relative of the Reverend Bruin Rom- 

cas Comingo, a Presbyterian pastor at Lunenberg, Nova 


COOPER, James 

Flourished 18^^, Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

Cooper exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy in 
1855, a "Miniature Copy of a Daguerreotype on Ivory"; 
"Likeness of a Child, on Paper"; "Jenny Lind." 

Collas — Cooper: 27 

° r 

M R 

::^ '^^ ►^ 

fri « <; 
a- ■< < 


r-) CO n 

COOPER, Peregrine F. 

Flourished 1840-18QO, Philadelphia. 

Portrait and miniature painter. 

P. F. Cooper published a book in 1863 called "The 
Art of Making and Coloring Ivory Types, Photographs, 
Talbotypes, and Miniature Painting on Ivory . . . 
by P. F. Cooper, Miniature, Portrait, Pastil, and Eques- 
trian Painter and Photographer." He states in his 
introduction that he has had "the experience of twenty- 
three years in study and practice in miniature painting, 
twelve years of that time principally devoted to Talbo- 
type, or Photograph and Ivorytype coloring." 


b. July J, 1737^ Boston; d. Sept. 9, /cJ/j, London., England. 

Historical^ portrait and miniature painter. 

John Singleton Copley was the son of Irish parents 
of English descent who arrived in Boston in 1736. The 
father died in the West Indies shortly after his son was 
born. In 1748 Mrs. Copley married again and the step- 
father, Peter Pelham, who was both a painter and en- 
graver, probably gave the boy his first drawing lessons. 
When he was fifteen he had already painted his first 
portraits. His success, which came early, was such that 
John Trumbull wrote of his amazement at seeing the 
style in which the artist lived. In 1766 Copley sent the 
portrait of his half brother, Henry Pelham, to the ex- 
hibition in Somerset House. The picture was greatly 
admired and, although submitted anonymously, the 
custom of exhibiting only those artists' work who sent 
their names was waived on account of its excellence. 

Cooper — Copley: 28 

Through West's influence he was elected a fellow of the 
Society of Artists and invited to London. In 1769 he 
married Miss Clarke, whose father was the owner of the 
famous consignment of tea destroyed in 1773- ^7 ^^^ 
"Boston Tea Party." From June to December, 1771, 
he was in New York City. In 1774 he left for Europe 
never to return, going first to England and then to 
Italy. From Genoa he wrote: "Genoa is a lovely city! 
If I should be suddenly transported to Boston I should 
think it only a collection of wren boxes." He wrote 
from Parma in 1775 urging his half brother, Henry 
Pelham, to resist conscription. The treatment his 
father-in-law received at the hands of the mob would 
explain this letter, for Copley always remained an 
xAmerican. He visited Germany, Holland and France 
the same year, settling finally in London. In 1779 he 
was elected R. A. 

"The Life and Works of John Singleton Copley," by 
Mr. F. W. Bayley, Boston, 191 5, gives a list of prac- 
tically all of Copley's paintings. 

1. Joseph Barrell. i }i x i Vs- 

2. Mrs. Samuel Barrett. Oval, on copper. ^}4x^}4. 

Miss M. E. Cabot, Brookline, 191 5. 

3. Joseph Blake. On copper. 

Rear Admiral C. H. Davis, Washington, D. C. 
Painted about 1756. 

4. Mr. Samuel Carey. Oval, i VieX i Vie- Ivory. 

Boston Museum. 

5. Mrs. Samuel Carey. Oval, i ^ x i Vie- Ivory. 

Boston Museum. 

6. William Cleland. Oval. i>^xi. Ivory, attributed to 
Copley. Boston Museum. 

Copley — Continued: 29 

7- Self Portrait. Oval. Painted in England. 

Mrs. F. G. Dexter, Boston. 

8. Self portrait. Oval. ly&xi. 

Boston Museum, loaned by Mrs. H. Copley Greene, 


9. Lord Cornwallis. Miniature. 

10. Judge Danforth. On copper. 

11. James Erving. Oval, oil. "There is a tradition in the 
family that it was the first miniature in oil that Cop- 
ley made." Perkins. 

Mr. J. Langdon Erving, New York, 191 5. 

12. Dr. Samuel Fayerweather. On copper. 3 x 2>^. 

Mr. E. D. Harris, Yonkers, N. Y., 191 5. 

13. Joshua Grafton. Oval. Mr. J. G. Minot. 191 5. 

14. Benjamin Greene. Mrs. D. F. Prouty. 191 5. 
15-16. Thomas Greene and his Wife, two portraits on the 

same copper panel. 6x8. 

Miss M. G. Chapman. Boston. 191 5. 

17. John Hancock (1737-1793)- Exhibited in New York. 

18. Thomas Hancock (1703-1764). ^}4 y^ 3. On Copper. 

19. Joseph Sayer Hixon. 

Mrs. J. P. Hixon, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

20. Mrs. Joseph Sayer Hixon. 

Mrs. J. P. Hixon, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

21. Miss Thankful Hubbard, 1758. 

22. Miss Eliza Hunter, 1784. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

23. Judge John Lowell. (1743-1802). 

Mrs. G. M. Barnard. 1915? 

24. Jeremiah Lee, 1 5 s x i }4- Boston Museum. 

25. Andrew Oliver, Jr. 3x23^. Boston Museum. 

Copley — Continued: 30 

26. Lieutenant Governor Andrew Oliver. i>^xi>^. Oil. 

Boston Museum. 

27. Daniel Oliver. Mrs. G. F. Crane, N. Y., 191 5. 

28. Mrs. Oliver? 134 xi>^. Boston Museum. 

29. Chief Justice Peter Oliver. Oval, copper. 5x4. 

Mrs. G. F. Crane, N. Y., 191 5. 

30. Lord Rodney (171 8-1792). England. 

31. Sir John Saint Clair. 1 3^ x i H. 1758. 

Hist. Society of Penn. 

32. Stephen Salisbury? 134x1. Oval. 

Metropolitan Museum. 
23. Deborah Scollay. Worcester Art Museum. 

34. David Sears. Mr. David Sears, Boston, 1874. 

2^. Captain John Small. 
26. John Sparhawk. Painted 1783-4. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

37. Reverend Mr. Stillman. 

Mrs. J. C. Hixon, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

38. Mrs. Stillman. Mrs. J. C. Hixon, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

39. Samuel Todd. Miss Alba Davis, 1915. 
40-41. Two miniatures attributed to Copley. 

Mrs. Sarah Hooper, Boston, 1915. 

42. Portrait of a Man. Boston Museum. 

43. Mrs. Joseph Barrell, nee Nancy Pierce, (i 744-1 777). 

Miss Dorothea Keep, 191 5. 


b. ///<? Italy; d. /8j2, Newport^ Rhode Island 
Marine painter and portrait painter in oils. 

CoRNE fled to the United States to avoid military 
duty. Li 1807 he exhibited panorama of "The Bombard- 
ment of Tripoli," and "The Burning of the Pennsylvania 

Copley — Corne: 31 

Frigate" at Washington Hall, Salem. Some small- 
sized portraits in Indian ink by Corne are preserved in 
the Essex Institute. 

CUMMINGS, Thomas Sier 

b. August 26^ 1804^ Bathy England; d. September 4^ iSg^y 
Hackensacky N. J. 

Miniature painter. 

Thomas S. Cummings came to New York as a child. 
About 1 81 8, after meeting Augustus Earl he decided 
upon art as a profession. From about 1821 to 1826 he 
studied under Henry Inman and at the end of that time 
he devoted himself entirely to miniature painting. He 
also studied at the American Academy and when S. F. B. 
Morse, a fellow student, called a meeting in 1821 of 
those dissatisfied with the policy of the director, John 
Trumbull, Cummings was one of the number. This led 
to the foundation of the New York Drawing Association 
which in January, 1826, became the National Academy 
of Design. Cummings was treasurer of the institution 
from 1827 to 1865, vice president from 1850 to 1859 
and chairman of the committee that erected the present 
home of the x-^cademy. He was commissioned brigadier 
general of the New York State Militia in 1838. In 1865 
he published "The Historic x^nnals of the National 
Academy" that stands with Dunlap's "History of the 
Arts of Design" in importance as a history of the early 
American artists. The year after the publication of his 
book he moved to Mansfield, Connecticut, and finally 
settled in Hackensack in 1889. 

I. Daniel Tylee. N. A. Exhibition, 1841. 

Cummings: 32 

2. L. p. Clover. N. A. Exhibit 

3. George W. Jenkins. N. A. Exhibit 

4. Mrs. Johnson. N. A. Exhibit 

5. Henry Clay. N. A. Exhibit 

6. John Inman. N. A. Exhibit 

7. Henry Inman. N. A. Exhibit 

8. M. Yates. N. A. Exhibit 

on, 1 841. 
on, 1841. 
on, 1841. 
on, 1 841. 
on, 1 841. 
on, 1 841. 
on, 184I. 

9. Erasmus Darwin Foote. Brooklyn Museum. 

10. Elizabeth Stirling, later Mrs. Foote. 

Brooklyn Museum. 

11. Miss Anna Clark. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

CUSHMAN, George Hewitt 

b. "June 5, 1814^ Wiy^dham^ Conn.; d. August j, 18^6^ 

Jersey City. 
Engrave}' and miniature painter. 

George Hewitt Cushman at first studied engraving 
under Asaph Willard and did not start painting until 
late in life. It was his desire to enter West Point but 
was unable to carry out his wishes. His activity as an 
artist extended from New York to Philadelphia. The 
miniatures he painted were made generally only for his 

1. Self portrait. The Misses Cushman, Pa., 1898. 

2. Rebecca Wetherill. Miss R. Wetherill, Pa., 1898. 

3. Mrs. William W^ Young. Miss R. Wetherill, Pa., 1898. 

4. Daniel Wadsworth. 


Flourished 182'/^ Philadelphia. 

Miniature painter. 

I. Captain Smith of the British Navy. 

Penn. Academy, 1827. 

Cushman — Dal ton: 23 


DE BREHAN, Marchioness 
Flourished iy88. 
Amateur miniature painter. 

The Marchioness De Brehan was the sister of 
Count de Moustier, French minister to the United States. 
She visited Mount Vernon in 1788 with her brother 
and painted several profile miniatures of George Wash- 
ington and Nelly Custis. 

1 . George Washington 

Mrs. F. F. Moorhead, Allegheny, Pa., 1897. 

2. Nelly Custis. 

Mrs. F. F. Moorhead, Allegheny, Pa., 1897. 

3. Washington and Lafayette. On copper. 


Flourished 1796^ New York. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

DENNING, Charlotte 

Flourished about /<Sj^, Plattsburg, N. Y. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished 1800-18 10, Baltimore. 
Silhouettist and miniature painter. 

The name Dewey appears on a silhouette belonging to 
Mrs. W. A. Fisher, of Ambrose Clark made in 1800. 
In 1 8 10 an advertisement in a Baltimore newspaper 
says that S. Dewey painted "profiles and miniatures in 
various styles." There was a Silas Dewey — a "portrait 
painter, Vulcan Alley" in Baltimore in 1814-1815 and 

De Brehan — Dewey: 34 


he may have been identical with S. Dewey silhouettist 
and miniature painter. 


b. 1780^ Milton^ Litchfield Co.^ Conn.; d. there March 7, 

Miniature painter. 

Anson Dickinson started life as a silversmith but 
turned finally to art and took drawing lessons in Hart- 
ford. He began painting miniatures about 1804 and in 
that year sat to Edward Malbone for his portrait. The 
story is told that while Malbone was painting this por- 
trait the funeral procession of Alexander Hamilton 
passed by in the street below, but the artist was so 
absorbed that he would neither look out of the window 
himself nor allow his sitter to do so. From 1805 to 18 10 
Dickinson painted miniatures successfully in Albany 
and in the latter year met and received encouragement 
from Washington Irving. In 181 1 he was in New York. 
In 1 81 8 he visited Canada. In 1840 he moved to New 
Haven and shortly after to Hartford where he spent his 
remaining years. 

I. Archbishop Du Bois. 

1. Governor Sam Houston of Texas. 

3. Chancellor Livingston. 

4. Gilbert Stuart. 3x2^. N. Y. Historical Society. 

5. Gilbert Stuart. Mr. H. H. Houston, Pa., 1892. 

6. Gilbert Stuart. Mrs. Oscar L. Keith, Charleston, S. C. 

7. Governor Oliver Wolcott of Connecticut. 

8. J.W.Gates. I'^'U^^o.yi. Oval. 

Metropolitan Museum. 

Dickinson: 1^^ 


9- Mrs. Robert Watts, nee Matilda Ridley. 2Hx2}4. 

Metropolitan Museum. 

10. Judge James Gould. 234 X3K- Rectangle. 

Litchfield Hist. Society. 

11. Dr. Daniel Sheldon. 3X ^ ->^- Oval. 

Litchfield Hist. Society. 

12. F. ^Augustus Tallmadge. 3X x 2)4. Oval. 

Litchfield Hist. Society. 

13. Portrait of a Man. Attributed to A. Dickinson by 

C. H. Hart. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 


b. /79J Litchfield^ Conn.; d. after 18/f.o. 

Portrait painter in oils a)td ininiature. 

Daniel Dickinson was a contemporary of Jocelyn in 
New Haven. He moved to Philadelphia in 1820. In 
1830 he started painting in oils. He was a brother of 
Anson Dickinson. He exhibited six miniatures at the 
Pennsylvania Academy during 1 827-1 831. Two or 
three were after paintings by Sully. 

DODGE, Edward Samuel 

b. July S, 1816; d. April 6, 1857. 
Miniature painter. 

DODGE, John Wood 

b. November ^, 180'/ ^ New York; d. Dece?nber j6, i8gj. 
Miniature painter. 

1. General Jackson, 1842. The original from which the 
postage stamp of 1863 was engraved. 

2. Henry Clay. 1843. Mrs. A. C. Gunther, N. Y., 1897. 

Dickinson — Dodge: 36 

3- Henry Bergh. 

4. Mrs. Winston. 2 ^ x i ^-s. The Ehrich Galleries. 

DOYLE, William M. S. 

b. //^p, Boston; d. there May, 1828. 
Silhouettist and portrait painter in oils, miniature and 
Doyle was the son of a British officer stationed in 
Boston. He was associated with Daniel Bowen as a 
silhouettist. In the 1805 Boston directory his name 
appears as a "miniature painter at the Columbia 
Museum." Of this institution he was the head and 
retained the position the rest of his life. 
I. S. R. C. Moffatt. 

DREXEL, Francis Martin 

b. i/'92 Dornbirm, Austria; d. June 5, i86j, Philadel- 

Miniature painter and banker. 

Drexel came to the United States in 1817 and in 
1 81 8 he was painting miniatures in Philadelphia. Later 
he went to Peru, then to Chile, where he painted a por- 
trait of Simon Bolivar, and finally to Mexico. In 1831 
he founded the banking firm of Drexel and Company 
and gave up painting. 

1. Self portrait. Mrs. J. G. Watmough, Pa., 1898. 

2. Mrs. F. M. Drexel. 


Flourished 180^, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

He was, according to Dunlap, "a Flemming." 

Doyle — Drucez: 37 

DUBOURJAL, Savinien Edme 

b, February 12^ I795-, Paris; d. there, ^S_§j. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

DuBOURjAL was a pupil of Girodet and studied also 
at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He exhibited at the Salon 
for the first time in 1824. In 1846 he was in Boston 
and from 1847 to 1850 he was in New York where he 
exhibited many pictures at the National Academy Ex- 
hibitions. Although he painted portraits in oils he is 
best known by his pencil drawings and water-color 
portraits. He was an attached personal friend of 
G. P. A. Healy, and some account of their friendship is 
given in the "Life of Healy" by Healy's daughter. 
I. John C. Calhoun. Water-color. 

N. A. Exhibition, 1847 
1. Charles Lanman. Water-color. 

N. A. Exhibition, 1847 
3. Miss C. Lynch. Water-color. 

N. A. Exhibition, 1847 

N. A. Exhibition, 1847 

4. Miniature of the artist. 

5. Miniature of the Son of Voisin 

N. A. Exhibition, 1847 
Paris Salon, 1854 

6. President Polk. 

7. Harriette Story Paige. 

Mrs. Reginald Foster, Boston 

8. Caroline Leroy Webster, 1845. Drawing. 

Mrs. A. Lawrence, Boston 


See Anna Claypoole Peale. 

Dubourjal — Duncan: 38 


DUNCAN, James 
Flourished 1842-1862, Montreal, Canada. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 


Flourished i/8^-iy8^, Boston. 

Miniature painter. 

DuNKERLEY inserted an advertisement in the "Inde- 
pendent Chronicle," Boston, December, 1784, saying 
that he "still carries on his Profession of Painting in 
Miniature at his house in the North Square." In the 
same paper for February 17, 1785, Joseph Dunkerley 
and John Hazlitt advertised to start a drawing school, 
"as soon as a sufficient number of scholars apply. N. B. 
Miniature Pictures executed in the neatest manner." 

DUNLAP, William 

b. February //, z/^^, Perth Amboy, N. J.; d. September 

28, i8j9, New York City. 
Dramatist, art historian and portrait painter in oils and 

DuNLAP made a crayon portrait of George Washing- 
ton as early as 1783. In 1784 he went to London return- 
ing in 1787 with nothing but a few visits to Benjamin 
West's studio to show for his stay, on account of aimless 
peregrinations about England. However, upon his re- 
turn, he set up successfully as a portrait painter in New 
York. From 1789 to 1805 he abandoned art and entered 
civic affairs, visited Boston as a merchant and finally 
engaged in theatrical speculations. His play "Andre" 
was first performed in 1798. Failure, bankruptcy, and 
wanderings about many different cities occupied his life 

Duncan — Dunlap: 39 

until 1830 when he settled permanently in New York 
City.- In 1 81 2 he painted miniatures unsuccessfully in 
New Haven and seems never to have forgotten his lack 
of patronage there. Gilbert Stuart, who saw him 
shortly afterward, is said to have remarked: "Friend 
Dunlap, it appears to me the good people of New Haven 
may have had some cause." He was vice president of 
the National Academy from 1831 until 1838, the year 
before his death. A benefit performance at the Park 
Theatre relieved his later years. The loss of his right 
eye was a serious handicap to his production of good 

William Dunlap placed the future generations in his 
debt when he wrote his "History of the Arts of Design.'' 
He not only knew many of the artists personally but had 
the immense advantage of being himself an artist. The 
book is a mine of information, and has, too, the peren- 
nial charm ofVasari and Cunningham. It was reprinted 
in 191 8 by Messrs. Bayley and Goodspeed of Boston. 

The best brief account of Dunlap and his work, aside 
from his own entertaining autobiography, is the article 
by Professor Theodore S. Woolsey in the "Yale Review" 
July, 1914, which is supplemented with a list of Dun- 
lap's paintings. Oral S. Coad's "William Dunlap," 
also contains a register of his work. 

1. Anthony Bleeker. Sepia on paper. 

N. Y. Historical Society. 

2. Armitt Brown. 1800? Mrs. Fred Brown, Pa., 1914. 

3. Charles Brockden Brown. Sketch. 

4. Charles Brockden Brown. 234 x 2^. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

Dunlap — Cotitijiued: 40 


1 800-06. 

Mrs. Carmalt, 191 7 



Mrs. Carmalt, 1917 

5. Charles Brockden Brown. Brown Family, Pa., 1917 

6. Charles Brockden Brown. 

Lucy Wharton Drexel Collection, Pa., 191 7 

7. Mrs. Charles Brockden Brown. 

Lucy Wharton Drexel Collection, Pa., 191 7 
8-9. Two miniatures of George Frederick Cooke. 

The Players Club, N. Y 

10. Thomas Abthorpe Cooper. After the oil painting by 
Jarvis. The Players Club, N. Y 

11. Margaret Dunlap. 3^x25^8. 1810.? 

The Johnson Family, Staten Island 

12. William Dunlap. Prof. T. S. Woolsey, 1917 

13. William Dunlap. 

14. William Dunlap. 

15. Mrs. William Dunlap. 

Mrs. Carmalt, New Haven, 1917 

16. Mrs. Darley. 1806. Stan V. Henkel's Sale, 1905 

17. President Timothy Dwight. Attributed to Dunlap 
x'\bout 1 8 10. Mrs. W. H. Carmalt, New Haven, 191 7 

18. James Fennel, the Actor, 1827. 

S. V. Henkel's Sale, 1905. 

19. Mr. Griffin, 1830. Painted in Montreal. 

20. Reverend E. Low. 1822. Painted Norfolk. 

21. Mrs. Motte. Rhode Island School of Design. 

22. Elihu H. Smith; b. 1789; d. 1805. "During this 
time I painted some small sketchy liknesses of my 
friends C. B. Brown, Elihu H. Smith and a few others." 

23. President John Tyler. 2f^ x 2 >^. Mr. Albert Rosenthal. 

Dunlap — Continued: 4I 

24- Mrs. Royal N. Waller. 

25. Mrs. Royal N. Waller. Replica of foregoing. 

26. George Washington. Jan. 1833. "Touch on a minia- 
ture of Washington painted by me many years ago." 

27. Mrs. Wignel. 1806. Prof. T. S. Woolsey, New Haven. 

28. Colonel Hugh Williamson, 

29. Francis Bayard W^inthrop. 

Johnson Family, Staten Island, N. Y. 1917. 

30. Mrs. Benjamin W'oolsey the First. After an oil paint- 
ing by an unknown artist. Mrs. W. H. Carmalt. 

31. Mrs. Benjamin Woolsey the Second. 1798? 

Mr. Wm. S. Johnson, Marmaroneck, N. Y. 1917. 

32. Captain John Taylor Woolsey. 1795? Attributed to 
Dunlap. Mrs. W. H. Carmalt. 

2^. William Walton Woolsey. 1821? Wm. S. Johnson. 

34-45. Twelve miniatures by or attributed to Dunlap. 
Described in "Catalogue of a Collection of Ivory 
Miniatures and Water Color Views of New York, by 
William Dunlap to be sold March 10, 1905." Stan V. 
Henkels. 16 illustrations. One in color. 

46. A Cupid and Two Females, 

47. Portrait of a Man. 2^x 2]4. The Ehrich Galleries. 

48. Portrait of a Lady. 4>^ x 2]4. Mr. A. Rosenthal. 

b. August 21^ ^796^ Jefferson Village^ now Maplewood, 

N. J. d. there September //, 1886. 
Engraver and historical and portrait painter. 

The son of a watchmaker of Huguenot descent, 
Asher Brown Durand helped his father engrave initials 

Dunlap — Durand: 42 

on silver and this practice led him to take up the en- 
graving of plates. He was apprenticed to Peter Maver- 
ick and, after five years, became his partner. He en- 
graved, among other pictures, Trumbull's "Declaration 
of Independence" and Vanderlyn's "Ariadne." In 1835 
he gave up engraving and devoted his time entirely to 
painting landscapes and portraits. 

1. John Durand. Ivory. New York Historical Society. 

2. Mrs. John Durand. 12x934. 1822. Ivory. 

New York Historical Society. 

DU SIMITlfiRE, PiERE Eugene 

b. 1736? Geneva^ Switzerland; d. October^ ^784-, Philadel- 
Naturalist and portrait painter in miniature and oils. 

Du SiMiTiERE lived in the West Indies from about 
1756 to 1765. He then went to New York and in 
1766 to Philadelphia. He resisted conscription in 1777 
and was compelled by the military authorities to pay a 
heavy penalty. In 1780 he opened an "American 
Museum of Curiosities." In 1781 he received an 
honorary M.A. degree from Princeton University. The 
following small portraits were engraved from Du Simi- 
tiere's drawings and published as a set in a quarto 
volume. The engraver was Benjamin Reading of 
Benedict Arnold. 
Silas Deane. 
John Dickinson. 
William H. Drayton. 

Du Simitiere: 43 




























w o 


6. General Horatio Gates. 

7. Samuel Huntington. 

8. John Jay. 

9. Henry Laurens. 

10. Gouverneur Morris. 

11. Joseph Reed. 

12. Baron Steuben. 

13. Charles Thompson. 

DUVAL, Ambrose 
Flourished 182'/ to i8jo^ Orleans. 
Miniature painter. 

1. Governor William C. C. Claiborne of Louisiana. 
Signed: ''A.Duval." 334x3. The Ehrich Galleries. 
Engraved by Longacre. 

2. Lelande de Ferrier. 2>2 x 2. 

Dr. L M. Cline, New Orleans. 


Flourished iyg6. 
Miniature painters. 

"DuviviER AND Son" painted on "silks and satins." 
They conducted a drawing academy. 
I. Ebenezer Hazard, 1796. 

Rev. T. E. Vermilye, N. Y. 1892. 

EAGER, William 

b. about lygd in Ireland; d. November 2^^ iSjg, Halifax^ 
N. S. Topographical artist. 

Besides his work as a topographical artist. Eager also 
painted a very few water color portraits. 

Duval — Eager: 44 


b. May /, /7(5/, Leicester^ ?iow Paxton, Mass.; d. August 

/, lygd, Charleston^ S. C. 
Portrait painter. 

The brother of Ralph Earl, He worked both in 
England and South Carolina. 
I. Dr. Samuel Stearns. Engraved for: "Tour from 
London to Paris," by Dr. Samuel Stearns, London, 


b. May 11^ 1751-, Shrewsbury^ Massachusetts; d. August 
16, 1801^ Bolton^ Conn. 

Historical painter, portrait painter in oils and miniature. 
Ralph Earl's earliest portraits date from 1771. 
Amos Doolittle engraved, in 1775, several scenes of 
incidents in the American Revolution which Earl not 
only composed but probably witnessed. Later he be- 
came an itinerant painter. In 1782 he studied under 
Benjamin West in London. He was made R.A. in 1783 
and exhibited at the Academy from 1783 to 1785. In 
1787 he was imprisoned for debt but received com- 
missions through the intercession of Alexander Hamilton. 
The writer knows nothing of portraits in miniature 
he is said to have painted. See: "Metropolitan Museum 
Bulletin," May, 1906. 

EARL OR EARLE, Ralph Eleaser Whitesides (or 

b. England?; d. September 16, iSjy, Nashville, Tennessee. 
Portrait painter. 

R. E. W. Earl was the son of Ralph Earl by his 
Earl or Earle, J. — Earl or Earle, R.: 45 

second wife. He studied in London under Benjamin 
West in 1809 and 18 10. In 1814 he visited Paris. He 
returned to the United States in 181 5, married a niece 
of Andrew Jackson and painted numerous small por- 
traits of the President. Several of these were painted 
from life. 

EDWARDS, Thomas 

Flourished 1822-18^6^ Boston. 

Silhoiiettist and portrait painter in oils and ?niniatiire. 
He exhibited at the Boston Athenaeum. 


b. November 2, i/"/6^ Lancaster, Perm.; d. May 11, 1842^ 

Portrait painter. 

The late Honorable William U. Hensel in an article 
on Jacob Eichholtz in the "Pennsylvania Magazine 
of History" for 1913 enumerated about 295 portraits. 
I. Henry E. Leman. Miniature. 

1. Dr. William Darlington. 1782-1863. Oval. 9 x 6>^. 
Oil. New York Historical Society. 

3. Ellis Lewis, Miniature. 


b. November 181 1, New London, Conn.; still living in 

Hartford 1881. 
Miniature painter. 

The miniature portrait painting partnership of Eld- 
ridge and Parker painted nine years in Hartford, at 
the end of which period Eldridge painted extensively 

Edwards — Eldridge: 46 


in New York and through the South. Failing eyesight 
and the advance of the photograph reducing the 
number of his sitters led him to abandon painting, 

ELLIOTT OR ELLIOT, Charles Loring 

b. December 1812, Scipio^ N. Y.; d. September 5, 1868 ^ 

Albany, N. Y. 
Portrait painter. 

The pupil of Trumbull and the friend of Henry 
Inman, Charles Loring Elliott achieved immense popu- 
larity and painted about 700 portraits. 
I. Louis Gaylord Clark. 1 "yix 1^2. The Ehrich Galleries. 

ELLIS, Salathiel 

Flourished 18^^-184.6, New York. 
A '^painter of ca?neo likenesses. " 

ELOUIS, Jean Pierre Henri 

b. January 20, //Jj, Caen, France; d. there, December 2j, 
184.J. Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Elouis was of German descent and his surname was 
a Gallicised version of von Ludwig. A pupil of Re- 
stout and Le Fevre in Paris he later went to London 
and studied at the Academy where he won a silver 
medal. He exhibited sixteen miniatures at the Academy 
Exhibitions from 1785 to 1787. About 1787 he went to 
the United States living in Annapolis and Baltimore 
until 1792 when he moved to Philadelphia. Here he 
painted a portrait of George Washington. About 1799 
he started on his travels with von Humboldt in the 
United States, Mexico and South America making 

Elliott or Elliot — Elouis: 47 

drawings for the great naturalist. He returned to 
France in 1807, abandoned miniature painting and 
exhibited portraits in oil at the Paris Salon from 1810 
to 1 8 19. He was made curator of the Museum of Caen 
in 1 814 and held the position until his death. An 
account of Elouis is given by C. H. Hart in the "Penn- 
sylvania Magazine of History, " 191 1. 

1. Martha Washington. 2 ^/,6 x i '^/,6. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

2. Martha Washington. Mrs. J. W. Drexel, Pa. 191 1. 

ELLSWORTH, James San ford 

b. 1802 ^ Windsor^ Co727i.; d. iSyj or y^, Pittsburgh Penn. 
Miniature painter. 

James Sanford Ellsworth was born in Windsor, Conn., 
in 1802. He was eccentric and eventually became insane, 
after which he removed to the West. He appeared in 
St. Louis and did some painting while there. He reap- 
peared in Connecticut as a "weather-beaten wanderer. " 
Thereafter he moved to Pittsburg, Penn., where he 
died in 1873 or 74. 

1. Portrait of a Gentleman, 2 Vs x 2 V2. Water-color. On 
paper. Mr. F. Fairchild Sherman. 

2. Portrait of a Lady, 2 Vs x 2 72- Water-color. On paper. 

Mr. F. Fairchild Sherman. 

EMMONS, Alexander H. 

b. December 12^ 1816^ East Haddam, Conn.; d. after i8yg. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Emmons started as a painter of miniatures on bristol 
board in Norwich. About 1849 he painted portraits 

Ellsworth — Emmons: 48 

in Hartford and about 1848 settled in Norwich. He 
travelled for a period in Europe. 

In P. K. Kilbourne's Biographical History of the 
County of Litchfield, Conn., New York, 1851, there is 
an engraving by D. C. Hinman of a portrait of Nath- 
aniel W. Taylor by Emmons. 
I. Master Reed. 4x3. Water-color. On paper. 

Mr. F. Fairchild Sherman. 
EVANS, John T. 

Flourished i8og^ Philadelphia. 

Landscape and miniature painter in water-color. 

He exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy both 
miniatures and scenes in water-color made during his 
visits to Ireland and England. He may have been the 
same as John Evans listed as a glazier, sign painter and 
fanlight maker in the Philadelphia directories from 1807 
to 1 821, the only John Evans mentioned. 

EVERS, John 

b. August //, //p/, Newton, L. I.; d. May j, iS8^, 

Hempstead, L. I. 
Miniaturist and painter of theatre scenery. 

EvERS worked at the Park Theatre and studied scene 
painting with Hugh Reinagle under J. J. Holland. In 
his earlier days he painted a number of miniatures on 
bristol board. He also painted river scenes and land- 
scapes. He moved to Hempstead in 1865. He was 
one of the founders of the National Academy of Design. 


b. iSoo Farmington, Conn.; still living in N. Y. 18^0. 
Engraver and miniature painter. 

Louis Fairchild studied under Asaph Willard as an 

Evans — Fairchild: 49 

engraver and helped support himself during this time 
painting miniatures. 

FANSHAW, Samuel Raymond 

b. December 21, 1S14, New York; d. there, December i^-, 
1888. Miniature painter. 

Fanshaw exhibited a number of miniatures at the 
National Academy exhibitions from 1841 to 1847. He 
was made an /Associate N.A. in 1881. 
1-6. "A Frame of Six Miniatures." 

N. A. Exhibition, 1847. 

7. Mr. George Clark. Exhibition, Newport, R. I. 1890. 

8. Mrs. George Clark. Exhibition, Newport, R. I. 1890. 

FETTE, Henry Gerhard 

Flourished 1842-18'/! in Boston. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

From 1842 to 1847 Henry G. Fette is listed in the 
Boston directories as a miniature painter and after that 
time as a portrait painter. 

1. F. C. Groger. 

2. Baron von Cronstern, Jr. 

FIELD, Robert 

b. before 1794, Gloucester, England; d. August 9, i8ig, 

Jamaica, West Indies. 
Stipple engraver and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 
Nothing is known of Robert Field's life, beyond the 
fact that he was born in Gloucester and lived in Lon- 
don, until 1794, when we learn that in April he sailed 
on the ship "Republic" bound for Baltimore and 
painted the captain's portrait in miniature at sea. 

Fanshaw — Field: 50 

He was in New York the same year. In January 1795 
he went to Philadelphia and made miniature copies 
of oil paintings. He painted an oil portrait of Charles 
Carroll that may be assigned to this period. Be- 
sides miniature copies he painted original miniatures 
at this time and also was busy at engraving. Of the 
engravings one was for an American edition of Shakes- 
peare's works — a portrait of Shakespeare from the 
"Chandos" picture; another was after Walter Robert- 
son's miniature of Washington. Concerning the matter 
of Robertson's miniature Field wrote to Robert Gilmor 
of Baltimore and a portion of the letter is quoted by 
W. S. Baker in his "Engraved Portraits of Washing- 
ton." During 1795 he visited Mt. Vernon and made 
sketches of Washington and Mrs. Washington. Tradi- 
tion records the "pious theft" by Field of one of the 
buttons from Washington's old army coat. Rembrandt 
Peale in a letter tells an amusing incident of Field and 
himself at Centreville, Maryland, about 1798. Field 
moved to Boston in 1805 where he was constantly 
occupied and frequented the circle that gathered at the 
home of Andrew Allen the British Consul. He made at 
least two engravings while he was in Boston, one of 
Trumbull's "Hamilton" in 1806 and another of 
Stuart's "Jefferson" in 1807. About May, 1808 he 
took passage to Halifax, Nova Scotia acting on the 
advice of the governor. Sir John Wentworth, and 
advertised in the "Royal Gazette" for June: "Robert 
Field at Alexander Morrison's, bookseller, intends, 
during his residence in Halifax, to exercise his profession 
as portrait painter in oil and water color, and in minia- 

Field — Continued: 51 

ture, where specimens of his painting may be seen and 
his terms made known." Among his first commissions 
were portraits of the members of the "Rockingham 
Club," later hung on the walls of the "Rockingham 
Inn," where the club had its rooms. Some of his Hali- 
fax portraits were of Sir George Prevost, Sir John 
Sherbrooke, William Bowie, Dr. John Haliburton, and 
Bishop Inglis. The latter is now in the National 
Portrait Gallery in London. "Tradition in Halifax," 
writes Mr. Harry Piers," states that he was somewhat 
of a dandy and wore Hessian boots, with tassels at the 
top." He did not, as Rembrandt Peale says, go into 
the ministry. He returned to England in 1818, exhibited 
as a "portrait painter of Halifax," at the Royal 
Academy and sailed the next year for Jamaica. In the 
Nova Scotia "Royal Gazette" for September 15, 18 19, 
is the following notice: "Died at Jamaica August 9th, 
Robert Field Esq., an Eminent Artist very much re- 

Robert Field stands in the first rank of the early 
American miniature painters. An excellent account of 
the artist is given in Mr. Harry Piers' paper in volume 
18 of the "Nova Scotia Historical Society Collections." 

1. Mrs. Allen of Boston. 

2. John Brown. Possibly by Field. Reproduced in 
C. W. Bowen's: "Centennial of the Inauguration of 
Washington." Mrs. J. M. Brown, 1892. 

3. Mrs. Samuel Chase. Reproduced in Dunlap: "His- 
tory," 191 8 edition. Worcester Art Museum. 

4. Henrietta Maria Hemsley Earle. 

Mr. J. H. Johnson. 
Field — CorUinned: 52 

5- Dr. James Sergeant Ewing. 1798. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

6. Captain Nicholas Hill, 1792-1870. Painted in 1817. 
Reproduced in "N. S. Hist. Society Collections" v. 18. 

Miss G. Hill, Vancouver, B. C. 

7. Dr. Matthias Hoffman. Mrs. S. Creed, formerly 

of Halifax, now in England. 

8. Benjamin Stoddert. 3>^x2>^. Signed R. F. 

Mrs. Campbell Brown, Spring Hill, Tenn. 

A replica by Miss Bertha E. Perrie is owned by 

Mrs. Claire Addison, Washington, D. C. 

9. Mrs. Thornton of Washington. 

10. George Washington. The Ehrich Galleries. 

11. George Washington. 3>^x2>^. After Stuart. 

Mrs. L. L. Eyre, Philadelphia, 1892. 

12. George Washington. After Stuart. Mr. H. L. Pratt. 

13. George Washington, 1798. 

Lawrence L. Conrad, Baltimore, 1881. 

14. George Washington. Inscription on satin lining: "Pre- 
sented to T. Lear by his friend Mrs. Washington, 
1 801." Mr. Charles A. Munn, N. Y. 

15. George Washington. Presented by Judge Bushrod 
Washington through the intermediation of Lafayette, 
to Simon Bolivar in 1825. In 1881 it was in Bolivia. 

16. William Clifton. Engraved by Edwin. 

17. J. E. Harwood. Engraved by Edwin. 

18. Martha Washinton. 

Mrs. B. W. Kennon, Washington, D. C, 1897. 

19. Martha Washington. 

Mrs. F. T. Moorhead, Allegheny, Pa. 1897. 

20. Thomas Jefferson. After Stuart. Engraved by Long- 

Field — Continued: !^i^ 

21. Charles Carroll. Engraved by Longacre. 

22. Mr. Gallego. Sully made a portrait of "Mr. Gallego, 
from a drawing by Field." 

FINN, Henry J. 

b. 1782^ New York; d. Jan. /j, /S^o, Lo?ig Island Sound. 
Lawyer, actor, author and miniature painter. 

Henry J. Finn studied law in New York but made 
brief appearances on the stage even during his student 
days. He then toured the English provinces with a 
company of strolling players until 181 1 when he acted 
in Montreal for a season. From 181 8 to 1820 he was on 
the staff of the "Atlanta Georgian" as a writer. In 
1 821 he was again in London this time painting mina- 
tures. About 1822 he sailed for Boston, resumed his 
stage career, became a successful comedian and toured 
the states. He perished in a boat disaster on Long 
Island Sound. 


Flourished lySj, Boston. 

JosiAH Flagg advertised in the "Boston Gazette," 
Feb. 10, 1783, the "copying of Miniature Painting in 


Flourished lySi, Philadelphia. 

Portrait draughtsman in crayon and ?niniature painter. 

FOLSOM, Mrs. C. A. 

Flourished iSjy-iSjS, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Finn — Folsom: ^^4 


FOLWELL, Samuel 

b. about i'/6^; d. November 26, 18 ij^ Fa. 
Silhouettist and miniature painter. 

Samuel Folwell was in New York in 1790. About 
1792 he was making bookplates in New Hampshire. 
In 1798 he moved to Philadelphia. His silhouette of 
Washington painted on card in 1791 was in the posses- 
sion of Francis Wellesley, Esq., England. 

1. John Jones, M.D., 1791. N. Y. Historical Society. 

2. George Washington. 

Inscribed: "Presented to James Henry Stevens, Esq., by 
his friend Col. William Washington, Sept, 9th 1800. Said 
to be a correct likeness taken from life of his Excellence 
Genl. Geo. Washington, first President, United States 
of America." below: "S. Folwel-Pixet. 

1795 — Done 1795." 


Flourished i8ig^ Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
Fortr ait painter in oils and miniature. 

R. FouLis worked first in Edinburgh and London; 

and came to Halifax about 1819. While in Halifax he 

started a drawing school. 

ERASER, Charles 

b. Aug. 20, 1282 , Charleston, S. C; d. there, Oct. 75, i860. 
Fortrait painter in miniature and oils. 

About 1792 Charles Eraser entered Charleston Col- 
lege and his first miniature dates from this early period. 
The next year he had as a school companion, Thomas 
Sully then recently from England. He lost his father 
when he was nine and his guardians trained him for the 
law. With a bitterness otherwise foreign to his nature 

Folwell — Eraser: 55 

he wrote, in later years: "This unfortunate error by 
which the destiny of my Hfe was directed, or rather mis- 
directed^ will ever be, as it has always been, a source of 
regret to me." Upon his graduation in 1798 he entered 
a law office and remained until 1800, his spare moments 
devoted to painting. In that year he met Edward Mal- 
bone, and Washington Allston. Probably encouraged 
by their example he devoted his entire time to art but 
gave up in disappointment after three years and again 
took to the study of law. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1807. In eleven years he accumulated a competence, 
shook off the dust of the law courts and at the advanced 
age of thirty-eight became an artist. His lack of early 
training prevented his becoming a portrait painter in 
oils of any distinction, although Gilbert Stuart said to 
him in Boston: "Young man, I am approaching the 
termination of my career. But when I cease from work, 
whatever rank may be assigned me, I see by that por- 
trait, there will be a man to fill my place." His work is 
almost entirely in miniature. A few short trips to New 
England, to New York and to Columbia, South Caro- 
lina were almost the only interruptions to his quiet life 
spent in Charleston. During Lafayette's visit to 
Charleston in 1825 he was chosen by the city to paint 
the portrait of the famous Frenchman. He was a mem- 
ber of several clubs among them the "Conversation 
Club" for which he wrote his "Reminiscences," which 
should be republished, and the "Mutton Chop Club," a 
favorite rendezvous of General Pinckney. In 18^7 
admiration for the man as well as for his work led a 
number of prominent men to collect his paintings to 

Frazer — Coyitinued: ^6 

form an exhibition which showed 313 miniatures, 139 
oil paintings and many sketches. The catalogue of that 
display forms the basis of the appended register. 

Charles Fraser was the only miniature painter whose 
work in quality and number reached that of Edward 
Malbone. His miniatures frequently rise to the height 
of those of his friend and will become more and more 
sought for by the public galleries as thev are brought 
to light from the private collections into which they 
originally found their way. His later miniatures are 
larger than his earlier ones and generally rectangular 
in shape. An excellent article on Charles Fraser by 
Miss Alice R. H. Smith in "Art in America" June, 
191s, is illustrated with a number of examples of his 

1. Reverend Jasper Adams, President of Charleston 

2. James Adger, 184O. 

3. Mrs. James Adger, 1S39. 

4. Mrs. J. B. Adger. 

^. Mrs. Charlotte Anne Allston. 

Mrs. Van der Horst, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

6. Benjamin Allston. 

7. Colonel William Alston, aid to Marion, after Morse- 

8. Colonel William Alston. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

9. Mrs. William Alston, formerly Miss Motte, after 
Morse, 1839. 

[C. Mrs. William Alston. 

Fraser — Continued: 57 


/ J. Mrs. Alston, mother of Governor R. F. W. Alston. 

12. Miss Amelia Annesley, 1839. 

13. Joseph S. Barker, 1826. 

Mr. J. He) ward, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

J 4. Mrs. Joseph S. liarker. 

Mr. J. Heyward, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 
J 5. George iiarksdale, infant son of Mrs. Barksdale. 
J 6. Mrs. Barksdale, sister of James E. Edwards. 

17. Henry Bailey, Attorney General, S. C. 

18. Major Henry H. Bacot. 

19. 1\ W. Bacot, P^rst Postmaster of Charleston, appointed 
Ijy Washington, 181 8. 

20. Mrs. K. I>. Baker, 1825. 

21. Isaac Ball, 1826. 

The Misses Ball, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

22. Keating S. Ball. 

Miss Anne S. Deas, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

23. Miss Ball, 1825. 

24. Ho)ior;ihle islihu Bay. 1837. Judge. 

25. Allard iielin. 

26. Miss E. Belin. 

27. W. C. Bee. 

28. Mrs. Bentley, Edinburgh. Copy. 

29. William Blair, 1834. 
^o. Mrs. Blamyer. 

31. William Branford, grandfather of E. Horry. 

Dr. h\ L. i^Vost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

32. Mrs. William Branford. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 
22' George S. Bryan. 

Miss R. M. Bryan, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 
I'Vaser — Continued: 58 

34- Honorable W. Zard Bull, as a child. 
^^. Honorable W. Zard Bull, Senator, S. C. 
^6. Miss Campbell, 1800. 

37. Miss Campbell, later Mrs. King, 1826. 

38. Mrs. Campbell, 1826. 

39. Dr. I. M. Campbell, 1819. 

40. James Campbell, son of J. B. Campbell, 1845. 

41. Celia Campbell, daughter of J. B. Campbell, 1845. 

42. James B. Campbell. 

43. Mary Bennet Campbell, daughter of J. B. Campbell, 

44. Robert Caldwell, 1843. 

45. Hon. Langdon Cheves, 181 9. Speaker U. S. H. R. 

Dr. F. L. Frost. 

46. Hon. Langdon Cheves, 1819. 

Mrs. A. T. Smythe, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

47. John M. Chisholm, 1835. 

48. Thomas B. Clarkson. 

Miss May Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

49. Mrs. Thomas B. Clarkson. 

Miss May Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

50. Thomas Cochran. 

51. John S. Cogdell, 1841. Artist. 

52. R. W. Cogdell. 

^2- Miss Lucretia Cohen, later Mrs. Mordecai, 1834. 
54. Octavius Cohen, 1836. 
^^. Dr. Amory Coffin. 
^6. Judge Colcock. 

57. Judge Colcock, 181 8. Duplicate. 

58. Mrs. W. A. Colcock, 181 8. 

59. Mrs. I. Course, 1834. 

Fraser — Continued: 59 






















Go. Lewis Cruger. 

6i. James Creighton. 

62. Mrs. George Cuthbert. 

61^. General James Cuthbert. 

64. Rev. Frederick Dalcho, Editor "Charleston Courier." 

Engraved by A. B. Durand. 

65. Col. F. W. Davie, 1835. 

66. Mrs. F. W. Davie, 1834. 

67. General Davie 1835. Envoy to France. After Van- 

6'i. John Dawson, 1829. 

69. John Dawson, Jr., 1829, 

70. Ann Deas, as a child. 

Miss A. Deas, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

71. Mrs. E. H. Deas, wife of Dr. E. H. Deas. 

72. Honorable Henry Deas. President S. C. Senate. 

Miss A. Deas, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

73. Thomas H. Deas, 1822. 

74. H. W. De Saussure, Director U. S. Mint, Chancellor 
of S. C, 1818. 

75. H. W. De Saussure, 1844. Duplicate. 

76. H. W. De Saussure, 1834. Triplicate. 

77. Mrs. John M. De Saussure, 181 8. 

78. Henry de Forrest De Vereaux. 2 V4 x 2 Vie- 

Boston Museum. 

79. Mrs. Dr. Dickson, Copy after Mrs. Bounetheau. 

80. Colonel William Drayton. About 1829. 

Miss E. D. Taylor, Pa., 1898. 

81. Charles Edmonston, 1831. 

82. Mrs. Charles Edmonston, 1825. 

83. L. A. Edmonston, 1830. 

Eraser — CoJitijiued: 60 

84. James F. Edwards. 

85. James F. Edwards. Duplicate. 

86. Major G. W. Egleston, 1834. 

87. George Edwards, 1824. 

88. Stephen Elliott, LL.D. Naturalist. 1822. 

89. Right Reverend Stephen Elliott, Bishop of Georgia. 

90. Miss E. S. Faber, later Mrs. B. G. Wilkins. 1846. 

91. Henry F. Faber, 1837. 

92. James Fay. Worcester Art Museum. 

93. Lord Edward Fitzgerald. After a print. 

Mr. Middleton, 1857. 

94. James Fisher. 

95. Mary Theodosia Ford. About 1829. 

Miss Emma Ravenel, 1898. 

96. Charles Eraser, 1800. 

Mrs. J. Alwyn Ball, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

97. Charles Eraser, 1823. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

98. Frederick Eraser. 

Mrs. J. Alwyn Ball, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

99. Frederick Eraser, 18 10. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 
100. Frederick Grimke Eraser. 

Mrs. J. Alwayn Ball, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 
loi. Frederick Grimke Eraser, 1852. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

102. Clara Eraser as a child. Later Mrs. Herbemont. 

103. Mrs. Mary Eraser, 1841. 

104. Timothy Ford, 1 81 8. 

105. Jacob Ford, 1829. 

106. Miss Ford, 1838. 

Eraser — Continued: 61 


07. Honorable E. Frost, Judge, S. C, 1S43. 

08. B. Gaillard, 181 8. 

09. Sextus T. Gaillard. 

10. James H. Gager, 1839. 

11. Major Alexander Garden, 1 81 8. Officer in Lee's Legion. 

12. Major Alexander Garden, 1839. Duplicate. 

13. Henry G. Ives Garden, as bov of six, painted from 

14. Mrs. Yancy Gray, 1842. 

15. James W. Gray, 1838. 

16. Mrs. James W. Gray, 1843. 

17. General Christopher Gadsen. After Peale. 

18. Reverend Christopher Gadsen, Bishop, S. C. 

19. General James Gadsen. Envoy to Mexico, son of 

20. General James Gadsen. Duplicate. 

21. Mrs. James Gadsen, nee Hort. 

22. John Gadsen, son of Philip, 1821. 

Mrs. J. Gadsen, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

23. John Gadsen. Duplicate. 

24. Philip Gadsen. Also attributed to Malbone. Son of 
General C. Gadsen. Duplicate. 

25. Philip Gadsen. Also attributed to Malbone. 

Mrs. J. Gadsen, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

26. Robert Reeves Gibbs, 1830.. 

27. Mrs. W. H. Gibbs, 1836. 

Miss S. R. Wilson, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

28. William Hasell Gibbes, 1836. Master in Equity, 1830. 

Miss S. R. Wilson, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

29. Dr. R. W. Gibbes, Columbia, S. C, 1829. 

30. Hon. R. B. Gilchrist, 1841. Judge U. S. Court. 

Eraser — Continued: 62 

13 1. Reverend Alexander Glennie. 

Mrs. Glennie, Charleston. 

132. Dr. Joseph Glover, iSiS. 

133. Mrs. Joseph Glover, 181 8. 

134. James Gourdin. Rectangular. Signed: "C. Fraser, 
Charleston, July 1824." 3^4 x 433. Mr. Herbert 
L. Pratt. 

135. Theodore Gourdin. 

136. Mrs. Theodore Gourdin, 1826. 

Mrs. W De Saussure, Charleston. 

137. Mrs. John Gravson. 

138. Honorable Thomas S. Grimke. State Senator, S. C. 

139. Major Elnathan Haskell, Officer Revolutionary Army. 

1 40. Lady Hamilton. After Romney. 

A. M. Manigault, Charleston, 1857. 

141. Harriet Hampton. About 1847. ^y^x^ys. 

Mr. R. P. Tolman, Washington, D. C. 

142. General Robert Y. Hayne. 1827. Governor; U. S. 

143. General James Hamilton. 183;;. M. C. and Governor of 
S. C. 

144. A. H. Hayden, 1842. 

145. H. S. Hayden, 1838. 

146. Mr. Heywood. Worcester Art Museum. 

147. Nathaniel Heyward, 1829. 

Mr. J. Heyward, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

1 48. Nathaniel Heyward. 

Mr. J. Heyward, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

1 49. Nathaniel Heyward. 

Miss Marie Heyward, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

150. William Heyward, 1837. 

Fraser — Continued: 63 

•13 B 

^ I- >-• 

dr. ■■ 


2 > 2 

151. William Heyward, Prince William's Parish, copy. 

152. William Manigault Heywood. After Malbone. 4x3^. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

153. Mrs. Wm, E. Haskell (1810-1841). Painted in 1838. 

154. Elias Horry the Huguenot (i 664-1 736). Copy. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

155. Colonel Elias Horry, son of foregoing. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

156. Elias Horry, son of Thomas Horry. Engraved by 
Longacre. Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

157. Mrs. Elias Horry, daughter of Thomas Horry. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

158. Colonel Peter Horry, cousin of Thomas Horry. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

159. Thomas Horry, grandson of the Huguenot. 

Dr. F. L. Frost, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

160. J. R. Horsey, 1839. 

161. Mrs. Horsey. 

162. Colonel Paul Hamilton. 

163. Colonel Francis Kinlock Huger. 1825. Adj. Gen'l. 
War of 1 81 2. 

164. John Huger. 

165. Dr. Benjamin Huger. 

166. Alfred Huger. 1820. Post Master, Charleston. 

167. John Hume. 1822. Aid to Marion. 

Mr. W. Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

168. John Hume. 1841. Duplicate. 

Mr. T. G. Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

169. John Hume. After Fraser. 

Miss C. Jervey, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

170. Captain Duncan N. Ingraham, U. S. N., 1830. 

Fraser — Continued: 64 

171. Mrs. Ingraham, 1830, 

172. Micah Jenkins, 1825. 

173. James Jervey, 1818. 

174. Dr. Joseph Johnson, author of "Revolutionary Remin- 
iscences, " etc. 

175. William E, Johnson, 1823. 

176. Andrew Johnstone, 1826. 

177. Mrs. Johnstone. 

178. Edward Jones. 

179. Reverend A. C. Kaufman, 1837. 

180. T. J. Kerr, 1826. 

181. Honorable Mitchell King, 1826. 

182. Mrs. Mitchell King, 1826. 

Major T. G. Barker, Charleston. 

183. Lafayette, 1825. The City of Charleston. 

184. Lafayette, 1825. Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey, N. Y., 1920. 

185. Mrs. Laborde, 1838. 

186. James H. Ladson, 1826. 3 >^ x 3 3^ oval. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

187. Mrs. James H. Ladson, 1826. 

Miss Isabel Ladson, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

188. Mrs. James H. Ladson at the age of 16. 

Miss Isabel Ladson, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

189. Mrs. M. Horry Laurens, 1830. 

190. Mrs. Henry Laurens, daughter of Chief Justice Rut- 

191. John B. Laurens, 1818. 

192. Mrs. James Lamb, 1834. 

193. Mrs. Paul S. H. Lee, nee Van Rhyn. 

194. T. Marchant Legare. 

Mrs. Gadsen King, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

Eraser — Continued: 65 

195- William Seabrook Legare. 

196. Dr. Le Seigneur. "Engraved from Mr. Eraser's minia- 
ture." 1834. 

197. Mrs. J. C. Levy, 1824. 

198. John W. Lewis. 

199. Honorable Robert H. McCarter of New Jersey, 1845. 

200. James J. McCarter, 1828. 

201. Mrs. W. Mayrant, 1842. 

Miss K. Simons, Charleston. 

202. Samuel Mayrant, 1839. 

203. S. Mayrant, 1834. 

204. Colonel James Elliott McPherson, 1818. 

205. Master Isaac O'Brian Smith McPherson, 1823. 

206. Master J. W. McPherson, 1823. 

207. General McPherson. x'\fter Malbone, 181 8. 

208. H. B. Mazyck, 1826. 

209. Mrs. H. B. Mazyck, 1826. 

Miss S. G. Mazyck, Charleston. 

210. Mrs. Charles Miot, 1830. 

211. Thomas Middleton in costume. 

212. Andrew Moffett, 1849. 

213. S. P. Monk, 1830. 

214. Mrs. Moodie, 1830. 

215. Dr. Edward Mitchell. 

Mr. G. S. Holmes, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

216. General William Moultrie, 1802.' 

Dr. James Moultrie, 1857. 

217. Napoleon. Copy, 1830. 

Hon. R. C. Winthrop, Boston, 1857. 

218. Mrs. Nelson, 1833. 

219. Dr. North. 

Eraser — Continued: 66 

220. Dr. Edward W. North, 1829. 

221. Henry Ogden. Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

222. Mrs. E. Patton, 1836. 

223. H. W. Peronneau, 1842. 

224. Captain Thomas Petigru. 

225. James L. Petigru, LL.D. 1834. 

226. James L. Petigru, LL.D, 181 8. 

227. Mrs. James L. Petigru, 1820. 

228. William Petigru. Oval. 2 ^'^3^- Mr. Herbert L. 

229. Daniel O'Hara. From memory. 

230. General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Indian ink 

231. General Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, 1823. 

Mrs. Thomas Pinckney. 

232. Colonel R. R. Pinckney. 

233. Mrs. R. Q. Pinckney. 

234. Joel R. Poinsett, M. C. Secretary of War, Minister to 

235. Mrs. Porcher, 1839. 

236. John Julius Pringle, Attorney General. 

Mr. D. E. Huger, Charleston, S. C, 1920. 

237. John Julius Pringle, 1803. Duplicate. 

238. John Julius Pringle, Jr. 1803. Miss R. Pringle. 

239. J. McPherson Pringle, 1834. 

240. Colonel James R. Pringle, President S. C. Senate. 

241. Robert Pringle, the emigrant. Copy, 1845. 

Miss S. Pringle. 

242. Miss Rosa Pringle, 1839. 

Miss R. Pringle, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

243. Mrs. William Pringle. 

Miss S. Pringle, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

Eraser — Continued: 67 

244- Captain John Pratt, 1831. 

245. William D. Porter, S. C. Senator, 1838. 

246. Mrs. Samuel Prioleau, 181 8. 

Miss C, P. Ravenel, Charleston, S. C.,1902. 

247. Mrs. Samuel Prioleau, 1818, Copy. 

248. Mrs. Samuel Prioleau, 181 8. Copy. 

249. Dr. T. G. Prioleau, S. C. Medical College. 1835. 

250. John Pyatt. 

251. Mrs. Martha Pyatt. 

252. Dr. Alfred Raoul. 

253. Mrs. Raoul, 1836. 

254. Alexander Robertson, 1 84I. 

255. Mrs. W. Robertson, 1831. 

The Misses Blacklock, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

256. Arthur G. Rose, 1840. 

257. Hugh Rose, 1826. 

258. Dr. James Read. Copy. 

259. Dr. William Read, of the Revolutionary x^rmy. 1824. 

260. Mrs. T. M. Rhett, Beaufort, S. C. 

261. Colonel William Rhett, 1845. Copy. 

262. Charles E. Roward. 

263. R. W. Roper. 

264. Mrs. Catherine Ravenel, 1838. 

265. Daniel Ravenel, 1839. 

266. Henry Ravenel, 1820. 

267. Nathaniel Russell. Eraser's first professional miniature, 

268. Mrs. Frederick Rutledge, 1852. 

Mrs. St. Julien Ravenel, 1902. 

269. Master States Rutledge. Eraser's first miniature, 1792. 

270. Mrs. Frederick Rutledge, 1849. 

Eraser — Continued: 68 

271. General John Rutledge, 1849. 

272. General John Rutledge. Copy. 

273. Chief Justice Rutledge. Copy after Trumbull, 181 8. 

274. E. C. Rutledge, U. S. N. 1818. 

Mrs. St. Julien Ravenel, 1902. 

275. Colonel E. M. Seabrook. 

276. Captain Shubrick, brother of the ancestor of the present 

277. Mr. Shubrick, son of the ancestor of the present family. 

278. Colonel Thomas Shubrick, son of the above. 

279. Mrs. Shubrick, wife of Thomas Shubrick. 

280. Dr. B. B. Simons. 

281. Harris Simons, 1830. 

282. Mrs. Harris Simons. 

283. Keating Simons, 181 8. Aid to Marion. 

Miss K. Simons, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

284. Keating Simons, duplicate. 

285. Thomas Grange Simons, 1845. 

286. Mrs. T. Y. Simons. 

287. Mrs. James Smith. 

288. Right Reverend Robert Smith. After Earle. 

289. John Martin Smith, Florida, 1837. 

290. John Smythe, 1824. 

291. Reverend Charles Blair Snowden. 

Mrs. Yates Snowden, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

292. John Jacob Snell. Mr. Herbert DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

293. Master Toomer. . 

294. Joshua W. Toomer, 181 8. 

295. Miss Eliza Taylor. 

296. Mrs. Paul Trapier. 

Mrs. S. Martin, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

Eraser — Continued: 69 

197- ^'"""^ T. Trapier, as a child. 

298. Mrs. Lewis Trapman, 1822. 

299. Mrs. Paul Trenholm. 

300. Edward Trescott. 

301. Mrs. Edward Trescott, 1821. 

302. Henry Trescott, 1822. 

303. Mrs. Henry Trescott, 1821. 

304. Robert J. Turnbull. Copy. 

305. Robert J. Turnbull. 

306. Charles H. Tunis, 1826. 

307. Stephen Van Rensselaer. Engraved by G, Parker. 

308. Governor Arnoldus Van der Horst, 1841. 

309. General A. Van der Horst. 

Mrs. Van der Horst, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

310. Colonel J. J. Ward of Waccamaw, first to grow big 

311. Mrs. J. D. Ward. 

312. Reverend Joseph Walker, 1845. 

313. George Washington. From memory. Ink. 

Mrs. Stock, 1857. 

314. George Washington. From memory. 

Charles Manigault, 1857. 

315. Honorable William Waters, Judge S. C, 181 8. 

316. Mrs. Wilkes, 181 8. 

317. Mrs. Allston White. Mrs. T. S. Grimke. 

318. John Blake White, author, lawyer and artist. 

319. Plowden Weston, 1738-1827. 

320. A. S. Willington, Editor, "Charleston Courier," 1834. 

321. C. Williman, Jr. 

322. James M. Wilson. 

Reverend R. Wilson, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

Eraser — Continued: 70 
69 . 

323. Dr. Samuel Wilson. 

324. Miss Maria L. Whitridge, later Mrs. Frothingham, 

32^;. J. BowdoinWinthrop, second son of Governor Winthrop. 

326. Joseph Winthrop, 1826. 

327. Joseph Winthrop, copy. 

Miss Carolvn Winthrop, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

328. Charles Winthrop, 1827. 

329. Miss Marv Winthrop. 

330. Miss Jane Winthrop, 1802. 

Miss Carolyn Winthrop, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 

331. Alice Belin Flagg. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

332. Paul Weston. 

223- Dr. Elisha Poinsett. Attributed to Fraser. 
334. Mary Shubrick Horrev. Engraved by Longacre. 
33;. David Ramsav. "Engraved by J. B. Longacre from 

the drawing by C. Frazer [sic] after a painting by C. 

W. Peale." Longacre's "National Portrait Gallery." 

336. Mrs. Wade Hampton (b. i8i8-d. about 1858). 3H x 
25s. Mr. R. P. Tolman, Washington, D. C. 

337. Captain Charles Bertodv. 3,^4 x 3. Formerly owned 
bv Mrs. Howard Bertodv. 

FREEMAN, George 

b. April 21^ 17^7 -, Spring Hill, Conn.; d. March. 7, 1868^ 

Hartford, Coyin. 
'Miniature painter on porcelain and ivory. 

George Freeman's miniatures are generally cabinet 
size. From 18 13-1837 he was in Paris and London. 
While in London he painted portraits of Queen Victoria 
and Prince Albert. 

Freeman: 71 

3 M > 

















tJi w 

■^ SI 














1. James Brown. N, A. Exhibition, 1844. 

2. Mrs. James Brown. N. A. Exhibition, 1844. 

3. Nicholas Biddle. 73^x5. 1838. 

Mr. Edward Biddle, Pa. 

4. Mrs. Nicholas Biddle. 3>^x2^<. 1838. 

Mr. Edward Biddle, Pa. 

5. Mrs. John Butler. Miss A. Biddle, Pa., 1898. 

6. Mrs. J. C. Craig, nee Sarmiento. 2^'^ '^ 3- 

Mr. E. Biddle, Pa. 

7. Mrs. Sigourney, 18 10. Engraved by F. E. Jones. 

8. President Tyler. N. A. Exhibition, 1844. 

9. Mrs. J. W. Wallace. Mrs. J. W. Wallace, Pa., 1898. 

10. Dorothy Francis Willing. 

11. Miniature of a Child. N. A. Exhibition, 1842. 

b. 1S21; d. Ju/y 20, /S6/, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Sarah Frothingham exhibited miniatures at the 
National Academy Exhibition during 1 838-1 842. She 
was the daughter of James Frothingham, N. A. 

FULTON, Robert 

b. November //, //^J, Little Britain, Perm.; d. February 

2j, iS/^y New York. 
Inventor and artist. 

The inventor of the first successful steamboat, Robert 
Fulton's early career was that of an artist, and during 
1782-1785 he painted landscapes anci portraits. He is 
listed in the directory for 1785 in Philadelphia as 
exclusively a miniature painter. Among his oil portraits 

Frothingham — Fulton: 72 

is one of Benjamin Franklin. His later activities need 
not be written about here — he relinquished art early in 
life. The panel portrait of Joel Barlow was engraved 
by Durand for "The National Portrait Gallery," 1834. 

I. Samuel Beach. About 1786. Worcester Art Museum. 

1. Ann Conyngham. Mr. J. Conyngham Stevens, 1913. 

3. Mrs. David H. Conyngham. 

Mrs. W. B. Stevens, 1913. 

4. Self portrait. The Lucy Wharton Drexel Collection. 

5. John Wilkes Kittera. About 1786. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

6. Mary Kittera. About 1786. Historical Society of Penn. 

7. Clementina Ross. About 1786. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

8. Walter Livingston. Attributed. 

Mrs. W. L. Livingston, 1892, 

9. Colonel Michael McCurdy. 

Mrs. George McHenry, 1913. 
10. Mary Conyngham. Miniature in a ring. 

Mrs. A. C. S. Krumbhaar, Syracuse, N. Y., 191 5. 

FURNASS, John Mason 

b. March. 4, ^763, Boston; d. June 22^ 1804, Dedham, 


Engraver and portrait painter in oils and water-color. 

In the "Independent Chronicle," Boston, April 21, 
1785, John M. Furnass inserted an advertisement saying 
that he had "taken a large and comodious Chamber at 
Mrs. Sheaffe's (nearly opposite Mr. Carter's Writing 
School) formerly improved by Mr. Smibert and lately 
by Mr. King, Limners .... is a native of Boston." 
Furnass was the nephew of Nathaniel Hurd the engraver, 

Furnass: 73 

GERMAN, John D. 

Flourished iSjy, New York: 
Miniature painter. 

GERRY, Samuel L. 

b. May lo, iSij^ Boston; d. April, iSgi, Roxbury, Mass. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 


Flourished lygj-iSjo, England, Scotland and Canada. 
Silhouette painter. 

J. H. Gillespie worked in London, Edinburgh and 
Liverpool before visiting Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1829. 
He painted with the aid of an instrument and worked in 
various manners. The inscription on the back of one 
of his silhouettes gives the following information: 
"Likenesses drawn in one minute by J. H. Gillespie, 
profile painter." It is possible that he also painted 
miniatures and was the artist who painted the portraits 
of George Turner, Dr. James V. Turner and Mrs. 
James V. Turner at the "Miniature Loan Exhibition" 
at Newport, R. L, 1890. 

GIMBER, Stephen H. 

b. 1810? England; still living in Philadelphia in 1862. 
Engraver in line, mezzotint and stipple, lithographer and 
miniature painter. 

Stephen Gimber was an Englishman who came to 
New York about 1830 and, during 1 832-1 833, worked 
on the same plates with A, L. Dick. Between 1836- 
1842 he exhibited miniatures at the Annual Exhibitions 
of the National Academy. From 1850 to 1862 he lived 

in Philadelphia. 

German — Gimber: 74 



b. lySi in France; d. December^ 1832^ West Pointy N. Y. 
Engraver and miniature painter. 

Thomas Gimbrede came to New York in 1802 and 
was first known as a miniature painter and dancing 
master. Later he practised engraving and furnished 
plates to the "Porto-Folio" and other periodicals. He 
received the appointment as instructor in drawing at 
West Point in January, 1819, where he remained until 
his death. 

1, M, Schley, signed "Gimbrede." lY^^iy^. 

Ehrich Galleries. 

2. Thomas Jefferson. "Gimbrede Del and Sculp N. Y." 

Wait's: "American State Papers," 1819. 


Flourished lygS^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

GODDING, William C. 

Flourished 1813^ Canandaigua, N. Y. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 


b. February 5, lySS, Templeton^ Mass.; d. December 

28, i8sjy Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

Sarah Goodridge or Goodrich as her name was 
frequently spelled received instruction in 181 2 from 
Gilbert Stuart. Some account of her is given in Mason's 
"Life of Gilbert Stuart." 

Gimbrede — Goodridge: 75 

1. Christopher C, Baldwin, 3>^x2f^. Rectangular. 

Am. Antiquarian Society. 

2. Self Portrait, arched top. 434 x 4>^. Boston Museum. 

3. General Henry Lee. Mr. Luke Vincent Lockwood. 

4. Grenville Mellan. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

5. A Revolutionary Officer. 2^4. x 2. Ehrich Galleries. 

6. Fitz William Sargeant. 

Miss E. B. Pleasants, Pa., 1897. 

7. James Sayville. Rhode Island School of Design. 

8. Gilbert Stuart. 3^x2^8. Metropolitan Museum. 

9. Gilbert Stuart. Mr. Samuel Honey, Newport, 1892. 

10. Gilbert Stuart, 1825. 2 3^ x 2 Vie- Boston Museum. 

11. Russell Sturgis. 4>^x3Vi6. After Stuart. 

Boston Museum. 

12. Daniel Webster, 1827. 

Massachusetts Historical Society. 

13. Daniel Webster, 1830. Bowdoin College. 

14. Daniel Webster, 1831. Miss Walker, Boston, 1897. 

15. Daniel Webster, 1833. 

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, 191 2. 

16. Daniel Webster, 1836. 

Mr. E. Appleton, Boston, 1897. 

17. Daniel Webster, 1845, 

The Late Charles Henry Hart. 

18. Daniel Webster. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

19. General Knox. After Stuart. Bowdoin College. 


Flourished ///j-///^, Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

"About the year 1773 o*" 4 '^ Swedish gentleman 
named Greath visited Philadelphia. It was said that he 

Greath: 76 


only painted for his amusement and it was a favour to 
get him to paint a portrait in miniature." Charles 
Willson Peale to Rembrandt Peale, October 28, 181 2. 

GREINER, Christopher 

Flourished 18^7-1864, Philadelphia. 
Portrait painter in oils a?id miniature. 
I. Daniel Billmeyer. 2^x1 li. 

Historical Society of Penn. 


b. 1^84; d. 18^9. 

Painter of colored profiles. 

See Ethel S. Bolton's "Wax Portraits and Sil- 
houettes." He worked in Massachusetts, Vermont and 
New York. 

GUILLETT, Madame J. 

Flourished 18^^-1842, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Mr. John Hill Morgan in a letter to the writer 
states that Madame Guillett painted many miniatures 
in Virginia. 
1-5. Five Miniatures. 

N. A. Exhibition, N. Y., 1838. 

6. Charles Mathews. N. A. Exhibition, N. Y., 1839. 

7. Moses Paul. (18 15-1848.) Painted in Petersburg, 
Va., about 1839. -/^ x 2. Mrs. John Hill Morgan. 

8. Virginia Johnson. 

9. Martha Pegram, later Mrs. Charles F. Stainback, of 
Petersburg, Va. 

Mrs. Waller Morton, Richmond, Va. 
Greiner — Guilette: 77 


FloH?-ished 1848^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 
• C. Haag exhibited "miniature portraits" at the 
National Academy Exhibition in 1848. 

HAINES, William 

b. June 21^ 1778-, Bedhampton^ Hampshire, England; 

d. July 24, 1848, East Brixton, England. 
Engraver and portrait painter iti miniature aiid oils. 

At Northaw William Haines was apprenticed to Thew 
the engraver. He sailed for the Cape of Good Hope in 
1800 and at Cape Town made a number of drawings of 
the natives. He afterwards went to Philadelphia and 
was employed as a book illustrator and engraver. In 
1805 he returned to England and was for a time in 
Chichester. Shortly after he went to London and 
painted many portraits, in oil and miniature, and 
exhibited at the Royal Academy Exhibitions from 1808 
to 1830. About the latter year an inheritance induced 
him to retire to East Brixton. 
I. Benjamin Rush. 

"Painted and Engraved by Wm. Haines." 
1. Benjamin Smith Barton. 

"Painted & engraved by W. Haines." 
3. Thomas Moore. "Painted & engraved by W. Haines." 

HALL, Ann 

b. May 1792, Pom/ret, Conn.; d. iS6j, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

x^NN Hall studied in Newport under Samuel King 
and later in New York under Alexander Robertson. 

Haag— Hall -.78 

She exhibited at the National Academy during 1845- 

1. Samuel Ward, Jr. 

2. Mrs. Jay and her child. 

3. Dr. John W. Francis. 

4. The Children of Samuel Ward. 

5. J. Prescott Hall. 

Loan Exhibit, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

6. J. Prescott Hall, as a youth. 

Loan Exhibit, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

7. Mrs. Harriette Hall. 

Loan Exhibit, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

8. Mrs. Henry Bedlow. 

Loan Exhibit, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

9. Miniature of an Unknown Woman. 

Mr. T. H. Gage, Worcester. 
HALL, Henry Bryan 

b. March 11, 1808, London; d. April ^5, 1884, Mor- 

risania, N. Y. 
Engraver, etcher and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 
H. B. Hall was a pupil of Hoppner Meyer and was 
employed by H. T. Ryall to engrave a plate from a 
painting called "The Coronation of Queen Victoria." 
Among his portraits in oil are those of Napoleon III, 
painted in London and Thomas Sully and C. L. Elliott 
painted in the United States. 

HANCOCK, Nathaniel 
Flourished i'/g2-i8oQ. 
Miniature painter. 

In the Boston "Independent Chronicle" for May 3, 
1792, there is a notice of the death of Hancock's wife. 

Hall — Hancock: 79 

In the same paper for 1799 Hancock inserted an adver- 
tisement as an artist. Dr. Bentley wrote in 1801 
"I saw at the public house Mr. Hancock of Boston who 
had come to Exeter as a miniature painter." In 1805 he 
moved to Salem and in October of the next year the 
Doctor records a conversation with Hancock concerning 
Gilbert Stuart, then working in Boston. January 1809, 
the Doctor writes quaintly: "Mr. Hancock gave me 
for a letter of his daughter, an account of the proceedings 
of the King's Chapel at the ordination of Mr. Carey." 
On certain bill heads printed in Boston, according to 
Mr. Mantle Fielding is the signature "Hancock, set. 
Boston" and it may be that Nathaniel Hancock was 
identical with this engraver. 
I. Colonel William R. Lee. 2>^ x 2. 

Essex Institute. 

HANSELL, George H. 

Flourished 1844-18^'/^ New York. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Hansell exhibited a "miniature of a little girl" at the 
National Academy in 1844. 

HARKINS, Robert 

Flourished 1841-1842^ Brooklyn. 
Miniature painter. 

HARVEY, George 

Flourished i8jy-i840^ New York. 

Landscape and miniature painter. 

I. Reverend E. Mead. N. l\. Exhibition, 1837. 

1. G. Thompson. N. A. Exhibition, 1840. 

Hansell — Harvey: 80 


3- Reverend Dr. Wainwright. N. A. Exhibition, 1840. 

4. Daniel Webster. 5XX4. Signed on reverse: "Geo. 

Harvey." Ehrich Galleries. 


Flourished i8jj^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 


b. 77^7, baptised July (5, Marshfield, Gloucestershire^ 

England; d. May 16^ ^Sjy^ Stockport, England. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

John Hazlitt was the elder brother of William 
Hazlitt the essayist. The father, a Unitarian minister, 
moved the family to Maidstone in 1770 where William 
Hazlitt was born in 1778. They then moved to Brandon, 
near Cork, Ireland. On April 3, 1783 they embarked for 
the United States arriving in New York on May 26. 
In this country the elder Hazlitt preached in many 
cities. He took his family to Perth Amboy, Burlington 
and finally to Philadelphia where it is recorded in a 
family journal that John Hazlitt was taken by his 
father to a week day gathering at St. Peter's Church to 
get a sight of George Washington. The family went in 
August 1784 to Weymouth, Massachusetts, travelling 
by way of Burlington, New York, Newport and Provi- 
dence. They lived here from 1785 to July 1786. During 
this time John often went with his father to Hingham, 
Salem and Boston. In Salem, 1785, he advertised to 
paint miniatures. In Boston during the same year he 
advertised with J. Dunkerley to open a drawing school. 

Hathaway — Hazlitt: 81 


At Hingham one of his portniits was a pastel of Rev- 
erend Ebenezer Gay and about this time he painted on 
a brooch size ivory a miniature of his brother William. 
In July 1786 the family moved to Dorchester, John 
often visiting Boston. In October of the same year the 
elder Hazlitt sailed for England and was joined by his 
family in 1787, at Wem. John stayed in London at the 
home of a friend of his father. He presently met Sir 
Joshua Reynolds and in 1788, exhibited for the first 
time at the Royal Academy. He exhibited annually 
thereafter until 1819. An independent outspoken man of 
great gifts he counted among his friends Coleridge, 
Charles Lamb, Godwin, Thelwall, Holcroft, and Stod- 
dart. Almost nothing is known of his stay in London 
from 1 819, when he last exhibited at the Royal Academy 
until 1832. In that year he moved to Stockport where 
he died, five years later. 

It seems almost incredible considering the incessant 
travels of the Hazlitt family in the United States that 
John Hazlitt could have trained himself at the age of 
eighteen, to paint such an excellent miniature 01 his 
brother judging from the reproduction printed in the 
" Complete Works of William Hazlitt." It is interesting 
to know that about that time, in Dorchester, John was 
giving the future essayist his first Latin lessons. 
. Reverend Ebenezer Gay. Pastel. Drawn in the United 

. William Hazlitt. At about 13 years of age. Painted in 
the United States. Reproduced in "Collected Works 
of W^illiam Hazlitt," London, 1904, volume i. 
. William Hazlitt. About 1784. Reproduced Ibid., v. 4. 

Hazlitt — Co)itiniied: 82 


Flourished 1841-1842^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

HENRI, Pierre or Peter 

Flourished i/'go-i8i2., London and Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

Henri probably studied at the Royal x^cademy in 
London. He painted miniatures both in Richmond and 
Philadelphia. In 1790 he inserted an advertisement in 
the "Pennsylvania Packet." He exhibited as late as 
1 811 at the Pennsylvania Academy. 

1. Self portrait. Mrs. E. Y. Townsend, Pa. 

2. Mrs. Beaumont in the Character of the Grecian 
Daughter. Pennsylvania Academy, 1811. 

HERRICK, Henry W. 

Flourished 184J., Nashville^ Tennessee. 
Miniature painter. 

HERVIER, Auguste 

Flourished i82'/-i8^8^ England and the United States. 

Miniature and portrait painter. 

Practically the only source of information concerning 
Hervier is to be found in the "Life of Mrs. Trollope. " 
In 1827 he met the family and sailed with them to the 
United States in that year. He worked for awhile in 
Memphis; in 1828 he was in Cincinnati; and during 
1 829-1 831 visited various other cities. In 1831 he was 
back in England. In 1835 he accompanied Mrs. Trol- 
lope to Paris and Vienna and illustrated several of her 
books. Exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1824-27; 

Heidemans — Hervier: 83 

1832-34, 1838-4I5 1845-47; J859~55 ^^^^ 1858. Charles 
Henry Hart wrote of his portrait of Andrew Jackson: 
"It is mentioned only because it exists." 

HILL, Pamela E. 

b. May g, /<Soj, Farmington, Mass.; d. /S60. 
Miniature painter. 

Pamela E. Hill exhibited at a number of the Boston 
Athenaeum Exhibitions. 

1. Mrs. Joel Thayer. 

2. Miss L. B. Vose. 

3. Reverend Croswell. 

4. Reverend Sharpe. 

5. Miss Walsingham. 

6-1 2. Seven portraits of members of the family of Stephen 
Salisbury II, and his relatives, painted in 1843. 
Worcester x-^rt Museum 
13. Mrs. M. G. Choules. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1891. 

HILLYER, William 

Flourished 18J4-1861., New York. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

HiLLYER belonged to the miniature and portrait 
partnership of Miller and Hillyer. 

HITE, George H. 

Flourished i8jQ-i86i, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Hite exhibited miniatures at the National Academy 
from 1839 to 1849. 
I. Mrs. Coleman. N. A. Exhibition, 1849. 

Hill— Hite: 84 



Flourished 18^4^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

HOPE, Thomas W. 

Flourished iSjg-iS^^, New York. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

HOWES, Samuel P. 

Flourished i82g-i8j^^ Boston. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 
I. S. Baker. Boston Athenaeum, 1833. 

HUDSON, Jr., William 

Flourished 182^18^^, Boston. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

I. "Dr. William T. G. Morton, discoverer of anEesthesia, 
painted 1845 by W. Hudson." 

U. S. National Museum, 

b. Oct. 14^ 1816, New York; d. there, Apr. 18, igo6. 
Portrait, historical and landscape painter. 

Daniel Huntington attended Hamilton College in 
1832 and Y. N. University in 1835. Finally he turned to 
art as a profession and in 1837 exhibited at the National 
Academy. He visited Paris, Florence and Rome in 
1 839-1 840. He revisited Florence in 1 843-1 84^;. In 
1 851 he visited London. He was president of the 
National Academy from 1862 to 1869 and from 1877 
to 1891. 
I. Mrs. Jay, copy from a French Miniature. 

Bedford House. 
Homan — Huntington: 85 

2. Miniature, in oil, of a Painter. 

"Painted con amore for a Lady." D. Huntington. 

INGHx'\M, Charles Cromwell 

b. i/'96 Dublin^ Ireland; d. 'December lo, jS6j, New York. 
Portrait a) id miniature painter. 

At the age of thirteen Charles Cromwell Ingham 
studied at the Dublin Institution and after a year took 
drawing lessons of William Cummings from 1809 to 
1 8 13. In 1 8 16 he came to New York. One of the 
foundation members of the National Academy he was 
vice president from 1845 ^^ 1850. 
I. Mrs. J. Green Pierson, about 1824. 

Mrs. P. K. Paulding, Cold Spring, N. Y., 1898. 

INMAN, Henry 

b. October 28^ iSoi^ Utica, N. Y.; d. January //, 1S46, 

New York. 

Portrait, miniature and genre painter. 

As a boy the work of Raphael was for Inman the 
highest ideal, and he took drawing lessons from an 
itinerant drawing teacher. When the family moved to 
New York about 1812 he continued his art studies at a 
day school. The father encouraged the boy's artistic 
inclinations but planned for his entrance to West Point. 
In 1 8 14, however, at the suggestion of John Wesley 
Jarvis he turned definitely to painting as a career and 
was apprenticed to that artist. In 1822 he married, 
took a studio on Vesey Street and started his profes- 
sional life as an artist. Several illustrations for Cooper's 
"Leatherstocking Tales" date from this time. He was 
vice president of the National Academy from 1838 to 

Ingham — Inman: 86 

1844- During 1831 to 1835 he lived at Mt. Holly, New 
Jersey, and Philadelphia. A genial man and fond of 
good company, at the dinner given to Charles Dickens 
in 1842 in New York at which Washington Irving pre- 
sided, he was among those chosen to speak. In 1843 
his health broke. Three friends, James Lenox, Edward 
L. Carey and Professor Henry Reed gave him com- 
missions to go to England and paint portraits of Chal- 
mers, Macauley and Wordsworth, as much for the bene- 
fit of the trip as for the pictures. He sailed for England 
in that year and stayed until 1845. When he died the 
following January steps were immediately taken to 
exhibit his work, and the result was the "Inman 
Gallery" of 127 paintings. 

Inman also painted landscapes and historical and 
genre pictures. Among the many sitters to his portraits 
in oil were Fitz-Greene Halleck, John Marshall, Thomas 
Sully and J. J. Audubon. 

1. James Bogart, Jr. About 1835. 

Miss J. Bogert, 1917. 

2. Nicholas Biddle. 2}ix2H- 

Mr. Edward Biddle, Pa. 

3. De Witt Clinton. Sepia. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1836. 

4. Fitz-Greene Halleck. Pencil. 3^x5. 

N. Y. Historical Society. 

5. Mrs. Alexander Hamilton. 

The Misses Hamilton, New York, 1897. 

6. Alexander Hamilton. After Ceracchi's bust. 

7. Chief Justice Marshall. ^ x K'- 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

8. Portrait of a Lady. The Ehrich Galleries. 

Inman — Continued: 87 

9- Portrait of a Child. The Ehrich Galleries. 

10. Portrait of a Young Man. Oil. About 5x7. 

The N. Y. Public Library. 

11. Portrait of an artist. Sepia. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1827. 

12. Mr. Samuel Vernon. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

INMAN, John O'Brian 

b. 182S, New York; d. 1896. 
Painter of small cabinet portraits. 

John O'Brian Inman was the son of Henry Inman. 

JACKSON, Edwin W. 

Flourished 1846-184'/^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

JARVIS, Charles Wesley 

Flourished i8jg-i86i. New York. 
Portrait painter in miniature and oils. 

Charles Wesley Jarvis was the reputed son of 
John Wesley Jarvis. A student of the National Acad- 
emy, he exhibited intermittently at the annual exhibi- 
tions from 1839 to 1850. The directory for 1 845-1 846 
lists him as a miniature painter — the later entries term 
him a portrait painter. 


b. i'/8o-South Shields., England; d. January 14^ ^8jg, New 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

The father of John Wesley Jarvis sailed for the United 
States and left the boy, who was still very young, in the 

Inman — Jarvis: 88 

care o\ his inatcnial uncle, Jolin Wcslcv, the touiulcr of 
Methodism. In 179;; young Jarvis was taken to Phihi- 
delphia. He starteci lite as an engraver, aj^jirenticed to 
Edward Savage, and associated with David Kdwin. In 
1800 he nioN'cd with Savage to New York, and in 1 S02 
set u}i iiulepeiulentK' as an engra\'er. He starteil jtaint- 
ing miniatures in 1S04 and opened a studio with Joseph 
Wooil. In 1 805-1 ^^^^ Ounlap records a visit he paid with 
luiwaril Malhone to the studio which resulted in 
Malhone's gix'uig them both assistance in miniature 
painting. The partnership lastcil until 1809 when 
Wood left tor Philadelphia. In 1810 Jar vis visited 
Charleston, in 1811 Baltimore. He exhibited in Phila- 
delphia in 181:; and 18 14. Henrv Inman became his 
ajiiM-eiuice in 18 14 aiul the two made trequent visits to 
the South during the winter, particularly to New 
Orleans. In 18:: the\ were in Boston together — it was 
Inman's last \ear ot ajijirenttceshij\ In 1 8^^o Jarvis's 
name apj>ears in the New Orleans directorv, and his 
stay in the city at that time must have been longer than 
usual. A great conversationalist he associated with such 
men as lr\ing. Van Wyke and ^'erplank but in his latter 
years sank into obscuntw He ilied in extreme j^overty 
at the house ot his sister Mrs. Childs. 

jarvis's portraits are ot great merit and he was one of 
the tirst to make an artistic study of anatomy in this 
countrw He worked with great ra}'>idity and with the 
assistance ot Inman sometmies finished a portrait in 
a day. 
1. Portrait o\ the Artist's sister. 

Rhode Island School of Design. 

Jarvis — Confif/ned: 89 

2. Portrait of a Man. 3x23.^. Oval. Signed: "Jarvis 
1809." Metropolitan Museum. 

3. Miss Anderson. 3x238. Oval. 

Mr. Du Puy, Pittsburgh. 

4. Christopher Colles, (1738-1821). Oil. j2xjo. 

N. Y. Historical Society. 
JOCELYN, Nathaniel 

b. January j/, I7()6-, New Haven ^ Conn.; d. Ihei'e Jan- 
uary ijy 1S81. 
Engraver and portrait painter in niiiiiature and oils. 

Na'ihaniki, Jocklvn started to study drawing in 
1 81 5. In I 8 17 he was associated with Tisdale, Dan forth 
and Willard in the Hartford Bank Note Company, and 
later, with Danforth, practically founded the National 
Bank Note Company. In 1820 he practiced his art in 
Savannah. He visited London during 1829 and 1830 
with S. F. B. Morse. He worked for a time in New York 
and became an Academician in 1846. The latter part 
of his life he spent in New Haven, where he had a studio 
in the "i'ale Art Building. 
I. Charles M. Pope. Mrs. J. M. Etting, Pa., 1898. 

JONES, William F. 

Flourished iS^.y-iS/f.g., Philadelphia. 

Miniature painter. 

I. "Full Length Cabinet Picture — Siga Truffi." 

Pennsylvania x-^cademy, 1850. 

JOUETT, Matthew Harris 

b. April 22 y I'/S/'., near Harrodshurg., Ky.; d. August /o, 

/S2y, Lexington, Ky. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Matthew Harris Jouett went to Transylvania 

Jocclyn — Jouett: 90 

University in 1804 and graduated with honors in 1' 
He then entered a law office and, after a year, started 
practice as a lawyer in Lexington. During the War of 
1 812 he enlisted as a volunteer and received a promotion 
from President Madison in 18 13, to Paymaster with the 
rank of second lieutenant. At the end of the war he 
abandoned law and took to his favorite vocation — 
painting. His father was greatly displeased at this 
step and looked upon the education spent on his 
son as wasted. However young Jouett thrived at 
painting portraits for twenty-five dollars apiece and 
finally earned enough to go east to study. In 1817 he 
set out on horseback for Philadelphia and Boston. In 
Boston he met Gilbert Stuart and became a favorite 
pupil. George P. A. Healy wrote that Stuart always 
addressed Jouett as "Kentucky." Jouett remained the 
rest of the summer and in the fall returned to Lexington, 
opened a studio and doubled the price for his portraits. 
Here he remained the rest of his life, spending his 
winters in New Orleans. 

Jouett was a portrait painter of the first rank. That 
he was successful in Kentucky is proved by the story 
told of John Neagle who intended to settle in Lexington 
but left when he saw the excellence of Jouett's work. 

General S. W. Price in "Old Masters of the Blue 
grass" 1902 prints an extensive list of Jouett's paintings. 
Mrs. William Allen. 

Mr. R. J. Menefee, Louisville, Ky., 1902. 
William Brand. 

Mrs. E. N. Warfield, Pewee Valley, Ky., 1902. 

Jouett — Continued: 91 


!_ D3 O 

^ 5! ^ 
&- < H 

3- Mrs. Brand. 

Mrs. E. N. Warfield, Pewee Valley, Ky., 1902. 

4. Fortunatus Cosby. 

Mrs. E. B. Carpenter, Louisville, Ky., 1902. 

5. Captain Robinson De Hart. 

Captain William De Hart, McComb, Miss., 1902. 

6. Reverend Joseph Cabell Harrison. 

Colonel Blanton, Duncan, California, 1902. 

7. Captain Nat. G. Hart. 

Miss Lizzie B. Hart, Lexington, Ky., 1902. 

8. Thomas Hart. Mrs. Ella A. Harris, Paris, Ky., 1902. 

9. Mrs. E. P. Humphrey. 

Mr. E. W. C. Humphrey, Louisville, Ky., 1902. 

10. A. L. Lewis. Mrs. Lewis, Clark Co., Ky., 1902. 

11. Stephen Lewis. 

Mrs. Thornton Lewis, Winchester, Ky., 1902. 

12. Thornton Lewis. 

Mrs. Thornton Lewis, Winchester, Ky., 1902. 

13. Major John Loving. 

Mr. John Loving, Louisville, Ky., 1902. 

KEARNEY, Francis 

b. about lySo^ Perth Amhoy^ N. J.; d. after 1SJ4. 


I. David Garrick. Lidia ink. 

KELLOG, Minor K. 

Flourished iSjg-iSjg. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Kellog exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy. 
In 1858 he was living in Paris. \\\ 1878-79 he was in 
New York. 

Kearney — Kellog: 92 

I. Andrew Jackson, 1839. 

Mrs. Olive L. Kellog, Cincinnati, 1897. 

KELLY, Thomas 
Flourished iSiy, Halifax^ Nova Scotia. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished 1841-1843^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

KING, Samuel 
b. January 24^ i749-> Newport., R. I.; d. there, December 
20y i8ig. Instrument maker and portrait painter in oils 
and miniature. 

Samuel King was sent as a boy to Boston to learn 
house painting, but gave up the trade to follow the pro- 
fession of portrait painting in Newport, encouraged by 
Cosmo Alexander. He kept a shop for making mathe- 
matical instruments and continued at odd times to 
practice art. He gave assistance to Edward Malbone, 
Washington Allston and C. B. King. In the "Diary" 
of Ezra Stiles is the following entry: "May 30, 1770. 
This day Mr. Samuel King took my picture in minia- 
ture. " This is the only reference the writer has seen 
concerning a miniature by King. 

KNIGHT, Charles 

Flourished 1811-1816, Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

Charles Knight exhibited at the Pennsylvania 
Academy. It is possible that this was C. Knight the 

Kelly — Knight: 93 

London artist, who exhibited i6 miniatures at the 
Royal Academy in 1793, 1796 and 1816. 

KRIMMEL, John Lewis 

b. lySy Wurtemburg^ Germany; d. "July 75, 1821^ Phila- 
Portrait and genre painter. 

Krimmel came to Philadelphia in 18 10, and in 1811- 
181 2 he exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy. His 
portraits in oils are said to be cabinet size. 


Flourished latter part of the eighteenth century. 
Miniature painter. 

Labatut was a Frenchman whom Washington em- 
ployed to paint a large miniature as a gift for General 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. 
I. George Washington. Size, including case, 7x6. 1782. 
On ivory. Miss E. F. Watson, N. Y., 1881. 


Flourished early part of the nineteenth century. 

Miniature painter. 

Jean-Frederic de la Farge called John La Farge, 
the father of the late John La Farge, was a French 
refugee from Santo Domingo. He came to New York 
and painted miniatures. 


Flourished i8jj, Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

Krimmell — Lalanne: 94 


LAMBDIN, James Reid 

b. May lo, i8oj^ Pittsburg; d. January j/, i88g^ Phila- 
Portrait painter in miniature and oils. 

The pupil in Philadelphia of Edward Miles and 
Thomas Sully, Lambdin worked in Pittsburg, Mobile, 
and for a while in Kentucky. He settled permanently 
in Philadelphia in 1837 and taught at the University 
of Pennsylvania. His son George C. Lambdin (1830- 
1896) was a portrait painter and crayon portrait 

1. Miniature of an Artist. 

Pennsylvania Academy, 1845. 

2. Samuel Richards. (1769-1842.) Rectangular. 4>^ x 
3^. Mr. Herbert DuPuy, Pittsburg. 

3. Elizabeth Richards Bell. (1810-1848.) Oval. 4^ x 
3><. Mr. Herbert DuPuy, Pittsburg. 

4. John Tyler. "Engraved by J. B. Forrest from a 
drawing by J. R. Lambdin. " 

Longacre's "National Portrait Gallery." 

5. Polly Stuart Webb Vincent, (i 822-1 883.) Rectangu- 
lar. iH X 2H. Writing on back states it was painted 
by J. R. Lambdin in New York, Dec, 1850. 

Mr. John Hill Morgan, N. Y. 
LAMONT, Daniel G. 

Flourished 18^6-184'/^ New York. 

Historical painter, and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

LESLIE, Charles Robert 

b. October //, //p^, London, England; d. there, May 5, 
i8^(). Historical and portrait painter. 

In 1799 Charles Robert Leslie was taken by his 

Lambdin — Leslie: 95 

parents who were natives of America, to the United 
States. His father established himself as a clock maker 
in Philadelphia where in 1808 the boy was apprenticed 
to a bookseller. With one of his employers he went, 
in 181 1, to London. Here he presented letters, that 
Thomas Sully had given him, to West, Beechey and 
other painters for he had, in the bookstore, already 
shown signs of artistic ability. He was elected A.R.A. 
in 1821 and R.A. in 1825. For one year, in 1831, he 
was instructor in drawing at West Point. From 1848 
to 1 85 1 he taught at the Royal Academy Schools. He 
was also a writer and his "Memoirs of John Con- 
stable" were published in 1848. His "Autobiographical 
Recollections" were printed after his death. 

1. Commodore Matthew Galbraith Perry. 1 795-1 858. 
Oil. 3x2. Peabody Museum, Salem. 

2. George Frederick Cook as Richard III. Drawing. 

3. George Frederick Cook as Othello. Drawing. 


Flourished i8j2~iSj4^ Halifax, N. S. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

L'Estrange was an Englishman who visited Halifax 
from 1832 to 1834. 

LINEN, George 

b. i8o2y Greenlaw, Scotland; d. 1888, New York. 
Portrait painter. 

Linen was a student at the Royal Scottish Academy 
in Edinburgh. He settled in New York in 1843. """^^ 
following are diminutive portraits in oil. 
I. Colonel William Popham. Metropolitan Museum. 

L'Estrange — Linen: 96 

2. Daniel Webster, 1838. 

Mrs. J. B. Linen, Buffalo, 1897. 

3. Henry Clay, 1838. 

Mrs. J. B. Linen, Buffalo, 1897. 


Flourished 184^-1848 , Boston. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished 1808-1820. 

Amateur miniature painter. 

Harriet Livingston became the wife of Robert 
Fulton in 1 808. On the reverse of a miniature of Walter 
Livingston in the possession of Mrs. W. L. Livingston, 
Flatbush, 1892, is the inscription: "The likeness of my 
beloved father. Harriet Livingston, Tiviot Dale 
Livingston Manor." It is reproduced in C. W. Bowen's 
"Centennial of the Inauguration of Washington." 

LONGACRE, James Barton 

b. Aug. II J I794-, Delaware Co., Pa.; d. January /, iSSg, 

Engraver and portrait painter in water colors. 

Longacre was the descendant of a Swedish colonist 
who settled in Delaware. Apprenticed to George 
Murray the engraver in Philadelphia he started engrav- 
ing professionally in 18 19. From 1834 to 1839 he 
published the work known as "Herring and Longacre's 
National Portrait Gallery," a source book for engravings 
after early American portraits. Many engravers were 
employed on the plates and James Herring was his 

Livermore — Longacre: 97 

associate in the undertaking. Longacre was an engraver 
to the United States mint from 1844 until his death and 
designed all the coins struck during that period. He 
also designed the coinage for the Chilean government. 
Some "Extracts from the Diary of James Barton Long- 
acre," were published in the "Pennsylvania Magazine 
of History" for 1905. 

1. Andrew Jackson. "Drawn from life. September 23d 
1829 and Engraved by J. B. Longacre." C. H. Hart 
wrote "Longacre painted a number of small miiniatures 
from it for breast pins." 

2. Andrew Jackson, 1829. Drawing. 

• Mrs. H. C. Wood, Philadelphia, 1 897. 

3. Daniel Webster. "Drawn from Life & Engraved by 
James B. Longacre." Drawing in Sepia, 1830. 

4. Daniel Webster. A second drawing in Sepia, 1830. 

LORD, Phoebe Griffin 

b. February 20, ^797-, East Haddam, Conn.; d. October 12^ 

187^^ Lyme. 
Miniature painter in water colors. 

She later became Mrs. P. G. L. Noyes. 


b. I773-, Boston; d. tJiej-e., June 2g^ /So/. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

But one miniature by Lovett has been identified. 
There is also an engraving by Hill dated 1798 after a 
portrait by Lovett of Baker the actor. In the Boston 
directories he is listed at first as a portrait painter. In 

Lord — Lovett: 98 

i8oo, however, he is called both a portrait and miniature 
painter, living at Bromfield's Lane. 

1. Reverend John Clarke. Essex Institute. 

2. Reverend John Clarke. Replica. Boston Museum. 

LUND, Theodore 

Flourished iS/fi-iS^^^ New York and Brooklyn. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished 18^0, Philadelphia. 

Miniature painter. 

I. Mrs. Harriet Houghton Lane. (1797-1850.) 

Mr. T. H. Gage, Worcester, Mass. 


Flourished i8j4^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

McDOUGAL, John A. 

Flourished i8j6-i8Si^ New York and Newark. 
Miniature painter. 

McDouGAL exhibited at the National Academy- 
Exhibitions during 1841 to 1849. 

1. Mrs. S. W. Parmley. N. A. Exhibition, 1845. 

2. J. Arthur. N. A. Exhibition, 1841. 


Flourished i846-i84.y^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

Lund — McPherson : 99 


MALBONE, Edward Greene 

b. August 1777^ Newport, R. L; d. May 7, 1S07, Sa- 

vanyiahy Georgia. 
Miniature painter. 

"You may enjoy your mirth but you shall one day 
see mv head engraved." Such were the words of Edward 
Malbone to his sisters. He was the boyhood friend of 
Washington Allston, with whom he received casual 
instruction in art from Samuel King about 1792 in 
Newport. Even earlier than this he had helped paint 
theatre scenery and copied old engravings incessantly. 
About 1793 he copied on paper a portrait by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence that was greatly admired. Soon he 
prepared his own ivory to paint on and the miniature 
of Nicholas Power dating from 1793, was his first 
commission. In 1794 he left home telling only his sister 
of his departure, to start as a professional miniature 
painter in Providence. Here his success was quickly 
assured as he informed his father after a few weeks. In 
1796 he moved to Boston where he renewed his friend- 
ship with Allston and continued the success he enjoyed 
the rest of his life. In 1797 he was in New York leaving 
in the spring of 1798 for Philadelphia. The yellow fever 
epidemic compelled him to move to the country where 
he still found continual employment. After leaving 
Philadelphia he visited various seaboard cities and 
finally sailed for Charleston, South Carolina in 1800. 
His reception was enthusiastic. His work was in great 
demand, he made many friends, among them Charles 
Eraser, and, feeling justified in making a long deferred 
voyage to London, he sailed in May, 1801, with his 

Malbone: 100 

friend Allston, who had recently graduated from 
Harvard. Together they visited the public and private 
art collections, met Benjamin West, who allowed them 
the use of his studio, and in the Autumn, studied at the 
Royal Academy. His well known picture "The Hours" 
at the Providence Athenaeum was painted in August 
of this year. In December he returned alone to Charles- 
ton and in the spring of the following year he sailed for 
Newport. In 1803-4 he was in New York. In 1804 he 
went to Boston, remaining until 1805, when in December 
he again visited Charleston intending later to make a 
second voyage to London. However a cold contracted 
in March 1806 settled in his lungs and he hurried home. 
During June he took to field sports for recreation and 
health but overexertion while hunting forced him to bed. 
At the suggestion of his physician he sailed for Jamaica 
in December, but the climate proving without benefit 
he bought his passage to Newport, fearing the worst, 
and embarked in May. He only reached Savannah, 
where he died at the home of his cousin Robert Mackay.. 
Of all the /American miniature painters none surpassed 
and few reached the excellence of Edward Malbone. 
His work is comparable to that of Samuel Cooper, Hans 
Holbein, John Smart and Isabey. In his later minia- 
tures, which were often larger than his earlier ones, there 
is generally no signature. "E.G.M.," or "Malbone," 
is the usual method when he did sign his name, although 
he sometimes wrote "Edw.G.Malbone." Painting in 
oils was an occasional practice in his later years and there 
is a portrait of himself in this medium at the Corcoran 
Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. An excellent idea 
of his art is to be obtained from Mr. Halsey's article in 

Malbone — Continued: loi 

"Scribner's Magazine" for May 1910, where a number 
of miniatures are reproduced in color. 

1. Caleb Abell. 224x1^. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 
Reproduced in "Macbeth Gallery Art Notes" March, 

2. Ann Crawford Allen. Rhode Island School of Design. 

3. Lydia Allen. Rhode Island School of Design. 
Both this miniature and the preceding reproduced 
in: "R. I. School of Design Bulletin," Oct., 1914. 

4. Dr. W. Allston. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston. 

5. Washington Allston. 1800-01. 

6. Washington Allston. Boston Museum. 
Reproduced in "Handbook," Boston Museum, 1906. 

7. Joseph Alston. (1778-1816.) 2f^ x 2. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

8. Mrs. Amory. Owned in Newport, R. I., 1884. 

9. Mrs. Ball, 1803-4. Painted in Charleston. 

10. Thomas Barksdale. Providence, 1803. 

Gen. Thos. A. Hugenin. 

11. Joseph Barrell. Mrs. Walter Crittendon. 

12. Miss Isabel Barron. 1806? 

Miss A. Bliss, N. Y., 1898. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton, "Salons," 1900. 

13. Colonel Clement Biddle. 

14. Mrs. Clement Biddle. 

15. Mrs. William Blacklock and Child. ^^4^3^- 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 
Reproduced in color, "Scribner's, " May, 1910. 

16. Mrs. Edmund Blake. Miss J. Robins, Pa., 1912. 
Reproduced in M. C. Crawford's "Romantic Days," 

Malbone — Continued: 102 

1 7- Joshua Blake, U. S. N. of Boston. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

18. Alexander Bleeker. 1803. 

19. Mrs. Alexander Bleeker. 1803. 

Mrs. C. M. Lea, Pa., 1898. 
Reproduced in color in A. H. Wharton, "Heirlooms," 

20. Nicholas Bowman, 1793. Providence Athenaeum. 

21. Mr. Bowman. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

22. Walter Bowne. 

23. Mrs. Walter Bowne. 

The Bowne miniatures are reproduced in C. Cook: "A 
Girl's Life Eighty Years Ago." N. Y., 1887. 

24. Charles Bulfinch. About 1788. Mentioned in W^insor: 
"Memorial History of Boston," v. 4, p. 472. 

Mrs. S. G. Bulfinch, Boston, 188 1. 

25. Luther Bradish. (1783-1863.) 3 x 2>^. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

26. Dr. Bruilsford, 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S, C. 

27. General Thomas Cadwalader. 

28. Mrs. Calhoun. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

29. Mrs. James Carter. 

30. Thomas Corwin. Mrs. R. M. Bryan, Charleston, S. C. 

31. Colonel Chestnut. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

32. Mrs. Langdon Cheves, nee Dulles. 

MissM. C. Dulles, Pa., 1898. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton's "Salons," 1900. 
22- Mrs. Langdon Cheves. Mrs. Langdon Cheves. 

34. Eleanor Coffin. Miss Rogers, 1887. 
Reproduced in "A Girl's Life Eighty Years Ago," by 
C. Cook, 1887. 

35. Mrs. Cockran. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

Malbone — Continued: 103 


^6. Richard Dana. ~ General Charles W. Darling. 

37. Mrs. Richard Dana. General Charles W. Darling. 
The Dana miniatures are both reproduced in A. H. 
Wharton's "Salons." 

38. David Deas, born 1771. 

Mr. David Deas, Charleston, S. C. 

39. Mathurin Livingston De Lancy. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

40. Mrs. R. C. Derby. 2%^~H- Metropolitan Museum. 

41. Mrs. R. C. Derby. Dr. W. P. Derby, Boston. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton's "Heirlooms," 1898. 

42. Dr. Drayton. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

43. Mrs. Drayton. 

44. Eben Farley. Worcester Art Museum. 

45. Lydia Coolidge Farley. Worcester Art Museum. 
Numbers 44 and 45 are both reproduced in "Bulletin 
of Worcester Art Museum," Oct. 191 5. 

46. Miss Ferguson, Daughter of x'^dams Ferguson. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

47. Miss Fenwick. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

48. Nicholas Fish. 

Mrs. D. Le Roy, Newport, R. I. 
Reproduced in C. W. Bowen's "Centennial of the In- 
auguration of Washington," 1892. 

49. Captain Fletcher. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

50. R. A. Eraser. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

51. Robert Fulton. (1765-1815.) 3x2^8. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

52. Mrs. Gadsden. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 
^^. Philip Gadsden. Attributed to Malbone. 

Mr. J. Gadsden, Charleston, S. C. 
54. Alister Garden. Attributed to Malbone. 

Mrs. H. S. Holmes, Charleston, S. C. 
Malbone — Continued: 104 

^^. Nicholas Gilman. x'\ttributed to Malbone. 

Mrs. C. W. Bowen, N. Y., 1892. 

56. Sarah Ladson Gilmor. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

57. Rachel Gratz. 1806? 

The Misses Mordecai, Pa., il 

58. Rebecca Gratz. 1806? 

The Misses Mordecai, Pa., il 
Numbers 57 and 58 are both reproduced in A. H. 
Wharton's "Heirlooms," 1898. 

59. Ray Greene, U. S. Senator, 

Miss Turner, Newport, R. I., 1884. 

60. Martha Washington Greene, ifl x 2^. Oval. 

Metropolitan Museum. 

61. Mrs. John Faucherand Grimke. Attributed to Mal- 
bone. Miss T. S. Grimke, Charleston, S. C. 

62. Miss Grimke. 2^x2. The Ehrich Galleries. 

63. Major Hamilton. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

64. Miss Matty Hatch. See Mason: "Gilbert Stuart," p. 

6^. Carl Frederick Herreshoff. Mr. Lewis Herreshoff. 

66. Sarah Brown Herreshoff. Mr. Lewis Herreshoff. 

67. Thomas Hovey. (1762-1830.) Attributed to Malbone. 

Mr. T. H. Gage, Worcester, Mass. 

68. Major Handy. Miss Handy, Newport, R. L, 1884. 
Reproduced in G. C. Mason's, "Reminiscences of 
Newport," 1884. 

69. Mrs. C. W. Hare, nee Emlen. Miss Hare, Pa., 1898. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton's "Heirlooms," 1898. 

70. Charles Harris. 1804. ^2^ x 2- Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

71. R.D.Harris. 1804. 3H ^ 3- Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 
Reproduced in Dunlap's "History," 191 8 edition. 

Malbone — Continued: 105 

72. Mrs. Mary D. Harris. Wife of Jonathan Harris. 3>^ 
X 2>^. The Ehrich Galleries. 

73. Major Jonathan Haskell. 2J^ x 2. Mr. H. DuPuy. 

74. Mrs. F. Haywood. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston S. C. 

75. Mrs. B. Hazard. Owned in Newport, 1884. 

76. James H. Heyward. 

Mr. W. J. Taylor, Baltimore, 1898. 

77. Mrs. James H. Heyward. 

Mr. W. J. Taylor, Baltimore, 1898. 
Numbers 76 and 77 are both reproduced in A. H. 
Wharton's "Heirlooms," 1898. 

78. Miss Matilda Hoffman. 1806? 

Mrs. G. S. Bowdoin, N. Y., 18 18. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton's "Heirlooms," 1898. 

79. Mrs. Daniel Horrey. 

Mrs. St. Julien Ravenel, Charleston, S. C. 

80. Miss Huger. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

81. Judge Daniel Huger. 1800. 

Mr. D. E. Huger Smith, Charleston, S. C. 

82. "Mr. Izard's Three Daughters. " 1803-4. Painted in 
Charleston, S. C. 

83. Captain George Izard. 3>^ x 2>^. 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 
Reproduced in color in "Scribner's" May, 1910. 

84. Mrs. Ralph Izard. 1803-4. 

Dr. G. E. Manigault, Charleston, S. C. 
Reproduced in C. W. Bowen's "Centennial of the In- 
auguration of Washington," 1892. 

85. Elizabeth Allston Jervey. 2-^-^ x 2 yi. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

86. Major James Ladson. Miss Isabel Ladson. 

Malbone — Continued: 106 


87. Mrs. James Ladson, nee Judith Smith. 

Miss Isabel Ladson. 

88. Sarah Reeves Ladson. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, 
S. C. 

89. Mrs. P. H. S. Lee. 

The Misses Lee, Charleston, S. C. 

90. George Long. Rhode Island School of Design. 
Reproduced in "R. I. School of Design Bulletin," 
Oct. 1914. 

91. Mrs. Lowndes. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 
^yi X 2yi. Oval. Metropolitan Museum. 

92. James W. Lowndes. 3x2^. The Ehrich Galleries. 

93. Harriet Lyman, later Mrs. B. Hazard. 

Mr. Peyton Randolph Hazard, Newport, R. I. 

94. Harriet Mackie. 

Mrs. Reid Whitford, Charleston, S. C. 

95. General John McPherson. Portrait of his son on the 
reverse. Miss Rosa Pringle, Charleston, S. C, 

96. General William Malcom. 

Miss M. C. Snowden, Sing Sing, N. Y., 1892. 
Reproduced in C. W. Bowen, ''Centennial." 

97. Edward Greene Malbone, 1797. Signed on reverse: 
"Edw. G. Malbone Miniature Painter." 
Reproduced in color "Scribner's," May, 1910. 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 

98. Mr. Manigault, 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

99. Joseph Marx. Penn. Academy. 
100. Asher Marx. Penn. Academy. 

loi. Mrs. Middleton, 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 
102. Joseph Kirk Milnor. 

Miss F. T. Milnor, Long Island, 1898. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton "Heirlooms," 1898. 

Malbone — Contmued: 107 

^ •'I 1— I 

s to 2 

^ V r/> 

Z O 




<— 1 





















103. Sally Foster Otis. 

Reproduced in "Bulletin of the Society for the Preser- 
vation of New England x>\ntiquities," March, 1917. 
Also "Life of Harrison Gray Otis." Also Griswold: 
"American Court." Owned by the Otis family, 

104. Theophilus Parsons, 1796. 

Reproduced in "Essex Inst. Collections" v. ^^, p. 97. 

105. George Pawley. 

Mrs. Reid Whitford, Charleston, S. C. 

106. Mrs. George Pawley. 

Mrs. Reid Whitford, Charleston, S. C. 

107. Mary Pawley. 

Mrs. Reid Whitford, Charleston, S. C. 

108. Edward Perry, x-^ttributed to Malbone. 

Mr. C. C. Waring, Charleston, S. C. 

109. Joseph Pierce, Jr. 234 x 2yi. Mr. H. DuPuy. 
no. General C. C. Pinckney. (1746-1825.) 

Mrs. T. Pinckney, Charleston, S, C. 

111. General Thomas Pinckney, (1750-1828). Painted in 
Charleston, S. C, 1803-4. 

112. Mrs. Poinsett. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

113. Miss Poinsett. 1803-4? Painted in Charleston, S. C. 
2S/8 X 2^. Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 
Reproduced in color in "Scribner's," May, 1910. 

114. Joel Roberts Poinsett. (1779-1851.) Painted in 
Charleston, S. C. 2 H x 2X. Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 
Reproduced in color in "Scribner's," May, 1910. 

115. Mrs. Moses Poor. 

Miss C. Webb, Washington, D. C, 1902. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton's "Social Life," 1902. 

Malbone — Continued: 108 


ii6. Portrait. Reproduced in color. "Scribner's," May, 
1900. Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 

117. Portrait of a Lady in Fancy Costume. 3^ x 2^. 

Metropolitan Museum. 

118. Portrait of a Lady. 3 x 2>^. Brooklyn Museum. 

119. Commodore Preble. 

The late Mrs. A. P. T. de H. Carpenter, 1920. 

120. Honorable James Reid Pringle. Painted in 1800. 
Reproduced in "Art in America," June, 191 5. 

Miss C. P. Ravenel. 

121. Richard Kidder Randolph. Profile 1800. 

Mrs. Thomas Breese, Newport, R. L, 1884. 

122. Thomas Radcliffe. (1776-1806.) 2f| x 2X. Painted 
in Charleston 1803-4. Mr. John Hill Morgan. 

123. Captain Benjamin Rathbone. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

124. L. P. S. Rhode Island School of Design. 
Reproduced in R. L School of Design Bulletin," Oct. 

125. Stephen Salisbury the First. 

Worcester x-^rt Museum. 
Reproduced in "Bulletin of the Worcester Art Mu- 
seum, April, 1914. 

126. Mrs. Stephen Salisbury the First (Elizabeth Tucker- 
man). Worcester Art Museum. 
Reproduced in "Bulletin of the Worcester x'^rt Mu- 
seum," x'^pril, 1914. 

127. Mr. Samuel Lawbere, 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, 
S. C. 

128. Colonel Richard Singleton. 254x2^6- 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

129. Mrs. Sinkler. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

Malbone — Continued: 109 

130. Colonel Scolbay of Boston. 

"There is a fine miniature of Colonel Scolbay of Boston 
in possession of his daughters; they told me that 
Stuart used to come, at least once a year, to see it, 
desiring them to take great care of it, as it was decid- 
edly the finest miniature in the world." 

Malbone's sister, Mrs. Whitehorne, to Dunlap, 1834. 

131. Mary Ann Smith. 

Mrs. H. S. Foster, Charleston, S. C. 

132. Mrs. Robert Smith, daughter of J. J. Pringle. 

A copy of Malbone's miniature by Ernest Gerard, 
Paris, is owned by Mr. R. T. Smith. 

133. Dr. Elisha Story. 2}i x 2)4. The Essex Institute. 
Reproduced in "Essex Institute Collections," v. 50. 

P- ^3S' 

134. Mr. Strong. The Ehrich Galleries. 

135. Archibald Taylor. 2^ x 2}i. Mr. John Hill Morgan. 

136. Lady Temple. Attributed to Malbone. 

Mrs. G. S. Bowdoin, N. Y., 1892. 

137. A. Louis Tousard. Engraved by Longacre. 

138. Job Townsend. Exhibition, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

139. Mrs. Benjamin Foissin Trapier. 

Miss Alicia Trapier, Charleston, S. C. 

140. Mrs. Paul Trapier (x-^licia Shubrick). Painted in 
Charleston, S. C, 1803-4. 

Reproduced in A. H. Wharton: "Heirlooms," 1898. 
Mr. W. Hayne, Jackson, Miss., 1898. 

141. Colonel Trumbull. Painted in New York. 

142. Mr. Vaughan. 1803-4. Painted in Charleston, S. C. 

143. Mrs, Julian Verplank. (Eliza Fenno.) 

Mr. B. Richards, N. Y., 1898. 
Reproduced in A. H. Wharton, "Heirlooms," 1898. 

Malbone — Continued: no 

1 44- Mrs. Robert Weir (Lucretia Tuckerman). 

Worcester Art Museum. 
Reproduced in "Bulletin of the Worcester Art Mu- 
seum," April, 1914. 

145. Miss West. 2^ X 2>^. Mr. x^. Rosenthal. 

146. Mrs. John Whitehorne. Pastel. 

Exhibition Newport, R. I., 1890. 

147. Henry De Wolff. 

The Misses Middleton, Newport, R. I. 

148. Charles De Wolff. 

Mrs. W. Guild, Newport, R. I., 1884. 

149. Major Samuel Wragg. (1769-1842.) Painted in 
Charleston, S. C, 1803-4. 

Reproduced in Dunlap's "History," 191 8 Edition. It 
may be remarked that this reproduction is from a 
photograph taken at a slant and does not perfectly 
represent the picture. 

150. Joseph Yates. Miss May Snowden, Charleston, S. C. 

151. Mrs. Yates. Miss May Snowden, Charleston, S. C. 

152. The Little Scotch Girl. 

Reproduced in "Scribner's, " May, 1900. 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 

153. The Birth of Shakespeare. Painted about 1793. 
Reproduced in "Scribner's," May, 1900. 

Mrs. C. Carleton and Mrs. H. S. Marshall, 1900. 

154. The Hours. Providence Athenaeum. 

155. Charles Eraser's Niece. 3>^x2>^. 

Metropolitan Museum. 

156. William Manigault Hey wood. A copy by Eraser 
belongs to Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

157. James Bowdoin. Miniature copy after Gilbert Stuart. 
See Mason: "Stuart," p. 267. 

Malbone — Continued: 1 1 1 

MAPES, James Jay 

b. May 2g^ iSo6^ New York; d. there^ January lo^ iS66. 
Amateur miniature painter. 

Mapes received the title "Honorary Member 
N.A.D." in 1833. From 1835 to 1838 he was "Professor 
of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy of Colors," at 
the National Academy. 


Flourished 1800-1802, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Maras was a Frenchman who after a few years in 

New York went to Constantinople and became painter 

to the Sultan. 

MARCHANT, Edward Dalton 

b. Decefuber 16, 1S06, Edgartown^ Mass.; d. August /j, 

1887, Asbury Park, N. J. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Marchant first exhibited at the N. A. in 1829. In 
1843 ^^ visited certain "Western cities" and finally 
went to Nashville. In 1845 he settled in Philadelphia. 
Among the sitters for his portraits in oil were Henry 
Clay, William Henry Harrison, and Andrew Jackson. 
I. Pliny Earl, 1 809-1 892. 

Mr. T. Hovey Gage, Worcester, Mass. 


Flourished iy'/6., Savannah., Georgia. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 
I. Major John Gedney Clarke. Essex Institute. 

Mapes — Mauvais: 112 


Flourished //pj, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

A portrait of N. G. Dufief is inscribed "Meance delt. 

Edwin set. " Meance also inserted a notice in the 

"Gazette Francais" for 1795. 

MERCER, William 

Flourished I'/y^-iS^o^ Philadelphia. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

William Mercer, the deaf mute son of General 
Mercer, and not the nephew as Dunlap states, was a 
pupil of Charles Willson Peak. Rembrandt Peale in an 
instalment of his "Reminiscences" in the "Crayon" for 
June 13, 1855 tells an amusing story of William Mercer 
during the Peace Demonstration in 1783. He concludes: 
"This same Mr. Mercer, under my father's tuition, 
became an excellent portrait painter, and continued his 
profession till his death a few years ago." 


b. February 5, //c^J, Franklin., Mass.; d. January /j, 

i8j4, New York. 
Silhouette cutter and portrait painter in miniature and oils. 
Metcalf was in Guadaloupe in 1807 to 1808 and later 
in Canada and Nova Scotia. He studied drawing in 
New York in 1810 and painted his first portraits about 
1 81 5. Owing to ill health he went to New Orleans in 
1 8 19. In 1822 and later he visited the islands of St. 
Croix and St. Thomas. The winter of 1 823-1 824 he 
spent in New York. He then left for Havana where he 

Meance — Metcalf: 113 

remained the rest of his life visiting New York annually. 

1. Joseph Rodman Drake. Mr. Charles de Kay, 191 4. 

2. Captain Benjamin Bradford. Circular. Possibly by 
Metcalf. U. S. National Museum. 

3. Captain Thomas Broom. 

Mrs. F. M. La Bruce, Charleston, 1901. 

4. Dr. John Haslett (1799-1878). Ivoryjxi^^. Painted 
1822. The Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
See J. H. Morgan; Miniature by Metcalf, Brooklyn 
Museum Quarterly, Jan., 1921. 

MEYER, Henry Hoppner 

b. lySj England; d. May 28^ 1847^ London. 

Stipple engraver and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

The nephew of the celebrated John Hoppner from 
whom he received assistance, Hoppner Meyer, as he was 
generally called, also learned engraving from Francesco 
Bartolozzi whose stipple manner he followed. He 
exhibited portraits in oil and water color during 1821- 
1826. One of the founders of the Society of British 
Artists he became, in 1828, the president of that asso- 
ciation and at the first exhibition showed eight portraits, 
two chalk drawings and forty-three engravings. At 
the exhibition in 1826 he showed a portrait of Charles 
Lamb. In 1830 he sailed for the LInited States where he 
was employed engraving portraits and painting minia- 

1. Andrew Jackson, 1832. 

Mrs. R. J. Laurence, Tennessee, 1897. 

2. Edward L. Carey. Water color. 

Meyer: 114 


Flourished 184.0-1842^ New York. 

Miniature painter. 

I. "Mrs. Mary Ann Washington, painted about 1840 at 
Milledgeville, Ga., by Mifflin of N. Y." 

U. S. National Museum. 
MILES, Edward 

b. October 14, 1752^ Yarmouth^ England; d. 1828^ Phila- 

Miniature paiyiter and portrait draughtsman in crayons. 
Edward Miles started out in life as an errand boy to 
a surgeon of Yarmouth who encouraged him in his taste 
for drawing. In 1771 he moved to London where he met 
Sir William Beechy, who painted his portrait, and Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, who employed him to make copies in 
miniature of his paintings. During 1775-1779 he ex- 
hibited K,!^ miniatures at the Royal Academy. After 
being painter to the Duchess of York, he finally became 
painter to Queen Charlotte whose portrait he painted. 
He also painted portraits of a number of the princesses. 
In 1797 he went to Russia and was court painter to Tsar 
Paul. He stayed in Russia during the time of the 
assassination of the Tsar and the elevation to the throne 
of the Tsarevich Alexander and saw the Napoleonic 
invasion of St. Petersburg. A portrait he painted of Tsar 
Alexander was given to the Earl of Liverpool. Tsarina 
Maria Louisa of Baden was also one of his sitters. About 
1806 he left St. Petersburg and sailed for the United 
States, arriving in Philadelphia in 1807 where he lived 
the rest of his life. In 1808 he lived at Third and 
Chestnut. In 1809 he is called, "portrait painter in 

Mifflin— Miles: 115 

crayons" and his address was 6i N. Seventh St. From 
1814 to 1 8 17 he lived at 210 Walnut Street and from 
181 8 to 1824 he lived at 206 on the same street. He 
moved, still remaining on Walnut Street, however, to 
218 in 1825 and is called a "drawing master." He seems 
to have been a man of independent means, painting his 
excellent miniatures for his friends and giving drawing 
lessons only after his son failed in business. 

1. Grand Duchess ''Marie Paulowa von Russland." 
Grand Duke W^ilhelm Ernst von Sachsen-Weimar- 

Eisenach, 191 2. 

2. Alexander of Russia. Mr. E. Miles, Pa., 1898. 

3. Maria Louisa of Baden. Mr. E. Miles, Pa., 1898. 

4. A Russian Princess. Mr. E. Miles, Pa., 1898. 

5. A Russian Princess. Mr. E. Miles, Pa., 1898. 

6. Unfinished Portrait of a Lady. 

Mr. E. Miles, Pa., 1898. 

7. Queen Charlotte. 

8. Bishop White. 


Flourished 1846-1861 y New York. 
Miniature painting partnership. 


Flourished 1841-188'j, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

He is listed as "an artist" in the later entries in the 
New York directories. 

MILLER, William H. 

Flourished 1846-184"/, New York. 

Miniature painter. 

Miller and Hillyer— Miller: 116 



Flourished lygj, Baltimore. 

Miniature painter. 

"Mr. Moranges takes the liberty to offer his 
services to the public as well in drawing pictures as 
giving lessons. His terms are the moderate sum of 12 
dollars." "Federal Intelligencer and Baltimore Daily 
Gazette," July 2, 1795. 


Flourished 18^1-1842, New York. 
Portrait painter in oils and ?niniature. 

MORSE, Samuel Finley Breese 

b. April ^7, lygiy Charleston y Mass.; d. April 2^ i8y2. 
New York. 

Inventor and portrait painter. 

Morse, the inventor of the telegraph, started his 
career as an artist. As a young man he painted minia- 
tures at five dollars apiece with the stipulation that the 
sitter furnish his own ivory. For a profile drawing he 
charged a dollar. sHe was president of the N. A. from 
1827 to 1845 ^"d ^rorvi 1 861 to 1862. See "The Letters 
and Journals of S. F. B. Morse," edited by Edward L. 
Morse. Boston, 1914. 

MUNGER, Caroline 

b. 1808., Guilfordj Conn.; d. !8g2, Madison^ Conn. 
Miniature painter. 

The daughter of George Munger. She married Horace 
Washburn in 1831 and exhibited miniatures at the 

Moranges — Munger: 117 

National Academy in New York in 1841 as Mrs. H. B. 

MUNGER, George 

b. February ij, 17S1, Guilford, Conn.; d. July 2, 182^, 

New Haven. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

A fellow student in New Haven of Anson Dickinson, 
Munger gave up painting only to resume it again in 
1 81 5. x^t one time he operated salt works at Milford, 

1. Self portrait. Oil on paper mounted on wood. Painted 
about 1800. Mr. Geo. B. Munger, East River, Conn. 

2. Captain Josiah Munger. Oil on paper mounted on 
wood. Mr. Geo. B. Chittenden, East River, Conn. 

3. Mrs. Harrison. Dr. Wellman, D.D., East River, Conn. 

NEWCOMBE, George W. 

b. Sept. 22, 1 799, in England; d. Feb. lO, 18 45, New York. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Newcombe came to New York in 1829 and is said to 
have been very successful painting portraits in that city. 

1. Thomas Gurnee. N. A. Exhibition, 1844. 

2. "Gustavus Schroeder, Esq., in an Old French Costume 

1 6th Century." N. A. Exhibition, 1839. 


Flourished 1846-184"/, Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

He exhibited three "Miniatures of Gentlemen" at the 
Pennsylvania Academy in 1847. 

Munger G. — Newport : 118 

OFFICER, Thomas S. 

b. about 1820, Carlisle^ Penn.; d. "Jan. 1860^ California. 

Miniature painter. 

Thomas Officer painted miniatures in New Orleans 
before coming to Philadelphia in 1845. ^^ ^^47 he 
moved to New York and exhibited at the Academy 
until 1849. -^^ ^^^^ year he returned to New Orleans. 
At the close of the Mexican War he established himself 
in Mexico City. Later he lived in Australia and finally 
settled in California. He exhibited seven miniatures 
at the N. A. Exhibitions of 1848 and 1849. 

8. Professor Mapes. N. A. Exhibition 1847. 

9. Mrs. Isaac Ball. 

The Misses Ball, Charleston, 1901. 

O'HARA, Miss 

Flourished i8j4^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

OTIS, Bass 

b. 1784, Bridgewater, Mass.; d. November J^ 1861, Phila- 
Portrait painter and lithographer. 

Bass Otis made one of the earliest lithographs in the 
United States. It was printed in the "Analectic Maga- 
zine" for July 1 819. Apprenticed first to a scythe maker 
and later to a coach painter he finally turned to art as a 
profession and painted portraits in New York in 1808. 
In 1 81 2 he moved to Philadelphia and continued his 
profession. An extensive article on the artist appears 
in "The Pennsylvania Magazine of History, " for 1913. 
I. Miss Eliza Pierce. 2 3<( x i H. The Ehrich Galleries. 

Officer — Otis: 119 

PARISEN, Philip 

Flourished lycjS-iSiz, New York. 
Miniature painter and jeweller. 

A mediocre miniature painter, the son of a silver- 
smith named Otto Parissiens who came from Prussia. 

PARISSEN, William D. 

Flourished iS/g-i8j2^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

PARKER, Thomas H. 

b. iSoi, Sag Harbor J L. I.; d. after iSj/. 
Miniature painter. 

Parker studied under Rogers in New York and 
settled shortly after in Hartford in 1829, where he was 
extensively employed as a popular miniature painter. 
He was the teacher and later the partner of C. \V. 

PARSELL, Abraham 

Flourished 182^-184'/, New York. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished iS^d-iS^y, New York. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished i8ig~i822, Halifax, N. S. 
Miniature painter in water color. 

Partridge was a drawing master who established 
himself in Halifax in 18 19. 

Parisen P. — Partridge: 120 

I. Joseph Partridge. Water color. g}4x62.i. Painted 
in 1 8 19. On heavy paper, 

Mr. Harry Piers, Halifax, N. S. 

PEALE, x'\nna Claypoole 

b. March 6^ i79i-> Philadelphia; d. there^ Dec. ^5, iSyS. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Anna Claypoole Peale inherited her artistic gifts 
both from her father James Peale and from her maternal 
grandfather James Claypoole, a Colonial portrait 
painter. She painted in Philadelphia, Washington, 
New York and Boston. She married twice and ex- 
hibited her work under three names, her maiden name 
and as Mrs. Stoughton and Mrs. Duncan. 

1. Commodore Bainbridge. Penn. Academy, 1822. 

2. Sarah Ball Richards Colwell, 1805-1888. Oval. Partly 
in oil . 2>^ X 2. Mr. Herbert DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

3. General x'\ndrew Jackson. Penn. Academy, 18 19. 

4. Mrs. x'\ndrew Jackson. Penn. Academy, 1819. 

Mrs. R. J. Laurence, Tennessee, 1897. 

5. Dr. Oliver Hubbard, about 1821. 3K x lyi. 

Essex Institute. 

6. Mrs. John Middleton. 

Mrs. J. P. K. Bryan, Charleston, S. C. 

7. Joseph Nicholson. 2 x i >^. 1826. 

8. Mrs. Elizabeth Noel Bosley. 2 x i >^. 1823. 

The two foregoing are in the possession of Mr. J. B. 
Wyatt, Baltimore. 

9. Mr. Henry Rodenwald. Signed "Anna C. Peale, 
1825." Mrs. James W. Wilson, Baltimore. 

10. Mrs. Henry Rodenwald. Signed "Ann'a C. Peale, 
1825." Mrs. James W. Wilson, Baltimore. 

Peale, A. C: 121 

11. Mrs. Richard Simmons. 

Mrs. J. Rodgers, Burlington, N. J. 

12. Mrs. Samuel W. Smith, nee Ellinor Donnell. Signed 
"Anna C. Peak, 1823." 

Mrs. C. S. Clark, Hartford Co., Maryland. 

13. Walter E, Harding. 

Dr. Carroll Fox, Washington, D. C. 

PEALE, Charles Willson 

b. April 75, 1741-, ^iieen Ann s County^ Md.; d. Feb. 22., 

1827, Philadelphia. 
Portrait painter in oils and yniniature. 

Charles W^illson Peale started in life as a saddler. 
In 1762 he married and established himself in this 
trade and also those of clock making and silver smithing. 
In portions of his autobiography published by Mr. 
Horace Wells Sellers in the "Pennsylvania Magazine 
of History" 1914, he tells how he became engrossed in 
politics about 1764 but finally turned definitely to 
painting the next year and visited Copley in Boston. 
In 1766 he painted portraits in Virginia, and during 
1 767-1 769 he was in London studying with West. 
Before the x'\merican Revolution he was both in New 
York and Philadelphia, and when war broke out he 
served under Washington at Trenton and Princeton. 
From 1779 to 1785 he was painting industriously. 
His children were Rembrandt, Raphaelle, Titian, 
Rubens, Vandyck, Sophonisba, Angelica Kaufman, 
Linnaeus and Franklin. In his later years he estab- 
lished a museum and was instrumental in founding the 
Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. 

Peale, C.W.: 122 

His miniature of Washington in the Metropolitan 
Museum was once attributed to Copley. See C. H. 
Hart on the Washington portraits in C. W. Bowen's 
"Centennial of the Inauguration of Washington." 

1. William Bingham. (1755-1804). Oval. i^xi}^. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

2. Master Harold. 2>^ x 2. Mr. Albert Rosenthal. 

3. Alexander Hamilton, i^^xij^. 

Miss M. Bart, Pa., 1897. 

4. Major William Jackson. i759-(i828). 

Independence Hall, Pa. 

5. Robert Morris. 

Mr. I. C. Van Der Heuvel, N. Y., 1892. 

6. Mrs. Robert Morris. 

Mr. I. C. Van Der Heuvel, N. Y., 1892. 

7. Mrs. James Montgomery, 1777. 

Mrs. W. Griffiths, Pa., 1898. 

8. Andrew Moore, 1796. 

Mr. J. H. Moore, Lexington, Ky., 1892. 

9. Colonel John Nixon. Mrs. C. Smith, Pa. 

10. Peyton Randolph. (1721-1775.) Oval. 2>^xi>^. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

11. Mrs. A. Robinson, nee Angelica Peale. 

12. Mrs. Philip Rogers. Mrs. Ridgeley, Baltimore. 

13. Comte de Rochambeau. (1725-1807.) Oval, i H x i >^. 

Mr. DuPuy. 

14. Major Jonathan Sellman. 

Mrs. M. D. Iglehart, Maryland, 1898. 

15. Mrs. Charles W^illson Peale. 

16. Captain Andrew Summers. (1721-1775.) Oval. 1^ 
X I X. Mr. DuPuy. 

Peale, C. W.- — Continued: 123 

> "V 




Er 6 


Itj-;- ^jf^ 



'j'*!;.'- .. >' 

^^K^~ '^tJ^^^^^^^^HH^^i'^^^ 

17. Mrs. Andrew Summers, (i 742-1 806.) Oval. i^xiH- 

Mr. DuPuy. 

18. Master Andrew Summers. Oval, i >^ x i >^. 

Mr. DuPuy. 

19. General Samuel B. Webb. 

Mrs. J. W. Laidley, Elizabeth, N. J., 1892. 

20. George Washington, 1785. 

Mrs. J. P. C. Foster, New Haven, 1892. 

21. George Washington, 1785. 

Long Island Historical Society, 1897. 

22. George Washington, 1777. Metropolitan Museum. 
22a. George Washington. 

The estate of Dr. David Stuart, 1920. 

23. Martha Washington. 

Mrs. B. W. Kennon, Washington, D. C, 1897. 

24. Thomas Wharton, Jr. (1735-1778.) Oval. i>2XiX. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

25. William White, 1770. 

Miss M. R. Croes, Yonkers, N. Y. 

26. Unknown Man, 1790? Oval, ij^ x 1%. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

27. Colonel John Laurens. Formerly owned by C. H. Hart. 

28. John Sevier. Attributed to C. W. Peale. Reproduced 
in A. Henderson: "Conquest of the Old Southwest." 

PEALE, James 

b. ly^g^ Annapolis^ Md.; d. May 24, iSji ^Philadelphia. 
Portrait painter in miniature and oil. 

James Peale painted a miniature on ivory ot Wash- 
ington for a snuff box top in 1788, and another on paper 
in 1795. His brother Charles Willson Peale is said to 
have been so pleased with his miniatures that he gave 

Peale, J.: 124 


up that branch of painting and referred his sitters to 
James for miniature portraits. His miniatures are 
signed generally in very small letters either "I. P., "or 
"J. P, ". He also painted "A Recontre between Colonel 
Allen McLane and Two British Horsemen" and several 
other historical pictures in oils. 

1. Henry Beck, signed "J. P. 1795." Oval. 2^x2. 

Mr. H. Du Puy. 

2. Gunning Bedford. (1720-1802.) 

Mrs. W. Reed, Baltimore. 

3. Miss Molly Callahan. 2 3<( x 2. The Ehrich Galleries. 

4. Miss Peggy Callahan. 2^x2. Signed "J. P. 1793". 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

5. James Claypoole Copper. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

6. Mrs. James Claypoole Copper, 1795. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

7. Isaac Coles, 1793. The Misses Coles, Sonans, Penn. 

8. Tench Francis, 1798. Mr. E. Gardiner, Pa., 1898. 

9. Christopher Greenup. Signed "J. P. 1797." 

Miss F. R. Hagner, Washington, D. C, 1920 

10. Mary Richards Ball Frazer. (1778-1800.) Oval 
2>^ X 2. Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

11. John Hancock. Mentioned as lost by C. H. Hart. 

12. James Harwood, 1810. 2>^x2>^. 

Mrs. J. B. Schwatka, Baltimore. 

13. Nicholas Harwood, 1798. 2pix 2)4- 

Mrs. J. B. Schwatka, Baltimore. 

14. John Callahan. Signed "J. P. 1799." 3 x 2^. 

Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

15. Alexander Hamilton, 1789. 

Mr. C. W. Bowen, Brooklyn, 1892. 

Peale, J. — Continued: 125 


1 6. Anne Anry Pierre Bellon de Pont. (1772-1854.) 
Oval. 234x13.8. Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

17. Dr. William E. Hulings. (1765-1839.) Signed "J. P. 
1789." Oval. iKx iH- Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

18. Mrs. William E. Hulings, 1770-1854. Oval. 3x2. 

Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

19. Mrs. Elizabeth Kortright Monroe Hay, daughter of 
President Monroe. Signed "J. P. 1814. " 

Stan. V. Henkels sale. 

20. Chancellor John Johnson. 

Mr. J. Hensley Johnson. 

21. Samuel Johnson, 1792. 

Mrs. C. Jones, Rock Hill, S. C, 1892. 

22. Samuel Johnson, 1753. 

Mrs. M. T. Shipp, Raleigh, N. C, 1892. 

23. James Mackubbin, 1798. 

The Misses Walton, Annapolis, Md., 1898. 

24. Major Griffith John McRae. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

25. Mrs. James Madison, 1794. 

Mrs. R. D. Cutts, Brookline, Mass., 1892. 
Reproduced in M. C. Crawford: "Romantic Days in 
the Early Republic." 

26. Harrison Gray Otis, 1765-1 848. Oval. 2/8 X2H- 

Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

27. Self portrait. Mr. Gilbert S. Parker, 1919. 

28. Anna Peale. Signed and dated. ^}'2X^y2. 

Mr. A. Rosenthal. 

29. John Steele, 1797. 

Mr. S. F. Lord, Salisbury, N. C, 1892. 

30. Pontius Delare Stelle. i^^xisg. Signed "J. P. 1790. " 

Miss Bertha E. Perrie, Washington, D. C. 

31. Pontius Delare Stelle, 1779. 

Peale, J. — Continued: 126 

32. Mrs. General Van Ness, nee Marcia Burns. 

The Corcoran Gallery of Art. 
1,^. Martha Washington, 1782. 

Mr. Durant du Pont, New Orleans, 1892. 
34. George Washington, 1782. 

Mr. Durant du Pont, New Orleans, 1892. 
2^. George Washington, 1788. On ivory. 

Washington Grays, Artillery Corps, Pa. 

36. George Washington, 1795. On paper. Formerly in the 
possession of Charles Henry Hart. 

37. Portrait of a Man. Signed "J. P. 1797." 2^x2^- 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 

38. Portrait of a Lady. Signed "J. P. 1797." 2^-^ x 23^. 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsey. 

39. Portrait of an Unknown Man. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

40. Nelly Custis. 5^:^x4^. 

Mr. R. T. Haines Halsev. 

41. George Gale. Mrs. G. A. Murphy, Baltimore. 
This miniature is reproduced in C. W. Bowen's book 
without attribution. It is, however, signed "I. P. 

42. Samuel Johnston. First U. S. Senator of North 
Carolina. Mr. Charles E. Johnson, Raleigh, N. C. 

43. Rembrandt Peale. Signed "I. P. 1795." 

Mr. John Hill Morgan. 

PEALE, Raphaelle 

b. Februar\ 17^1774^ Annapolis, Md.; d. March 2^,182^, 


Miniature and still life painter. 

A son of Charles Willson Peale. In the Exhibition 

Catalogue of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine 

Peale, R.: 127 

Arts he is listed as: "Portrait, miniature and Still Life 
Painter, 24 Powell between Fifth and Sixth Streets." 

I. George Washington. Profile. Water-color. 

Mr. H. H. Houston, 1897. 
PEALE, Rembrandt 

b. February 22^ ij'jS^ Bucks Co. ^ Pa.; d. October ^^ 1860^ 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature and historical painter. 
Rembrandt, one of the sons of Charles W^illson Peale, 
studied in London under Benjamin West during 1802- 
1803. In 1804 he was established in Philadelphia. In 
1807 and again in 1809 he went to Paris and painted 
portraits of a number of distinguished men, counting 
among his sitters Louis David, the painter, Delambre, 
the astronomer, Gay-Lussac, the chemist, and Cuvier, 
the naturalist and statesman. During 181 2-1 813 he was 
in Baltimore and in 1 822-1 828 he was in Philadelphia, 
Boston and New York. At the end of the latter year he 
made a tour of Italy, visiting Paris and London, and 
returned to New York late in 1830. He made a final 
visit to London in 1 832-1 833, visiting also Sheffield and 
Liverpool. His remaining years were passed for the 
most part in Philadelphia. 

1. Govert Haskins. (1769-1829.) Oval. 2 3^ x i >^. 1798. 

Mr. H. DuPuy. 

2. Reverend Thomas Haskins. (1760-18 16.) Oval. 
3 X ly^. Signed "R. Peale." Mr. H. DuPuy. 

3. Catherine Mellish. The Ehrich Galleries. 

4. Doyle E. Sweeney. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

5. General Anthony Wayne. (1745-1796.) Oval. 2^<x 
2>^. Signed "R. P. 1796." Mr. H. DuPuy. 

Peale, R.: 128 

6. Unknown Young Man. Oval. 3 >^ x 2f^. Signed 
"R. P. 1803." Mr. H. DuPuy. 

PEALE, Sarah M. 

b. May /p, 1800^ Philadelphia; d. there^ Feb. ^, 188^, 
Miniature painter. 

Sarah Peale was the daughter of James Peale. She 
studied with her uncle Charles Willson Peale. From 
1847 to 1877 she was in Saint Louis. She also painted 
in Baltimore and Washington, D. C. 

1. Miniature Portrait of a Lady. Penn. Academy, 1826. 

2. Mrs. Thomas Biddle. 2>^x2>2. The Ehrich Galleries. 


Flourished 1844^ Providence^ R. I. 
Miniature painter. 

PELHAM, Henry 

b. February 14, i'/48-g^ Boston^ Mass.; d. /8o6y Kenmare 

Rivery Ireland. 
Engraver and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

The half brother of John Singleton Copley. About 
1778 he visited England and at the Royal Academy 
Exhibition of that year displayed a religious composition 
and two miniatures. In 1779 he again exhibited at the 
Royal Academy showing four miniatures. Shortly after 
he went to Ireland and in 1780 exhibited at the Society 
of Artists in Dublin. He also drew views for Grose's 
"Antiquities of Ireland," and made a map of County 
Clare. He was drowned in Kenmare River by the 
capsizing of a boat while he was supervisor of some 

Peale S. M. — Pelham: 129 

engineering construction in the service of the Marquis 
of Lansdowne. 

1. William Wignell Stevens. Mr. H. G. Curtis. 

2. Stephen Hooper. "Sir, agreeable to your directions I 
have done your portrait in miniature and have it sett 
in Gold." Henry Pelham to Stephen Hooper, Sept. 9, 


The writer can find no trace of this picture. 

3. Jonathan Clark. Oval. 134x1 38. Boston Museum. 

Loaned by Miss Mary Amory Greene. 

Flourished iS^^^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

PERSICO, Gennarino 

Flourished 1822-18^4^ Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter and drawing teacher. 

The brother of Lugi Persico, the sculptor. He came 

from Naples. See "Lancaster Historical Society 

Papers," v. 16, No. 10. 


b. before i8o§^ Philadelphia; still living 1844. 
Portrait painter in oils and miiiiature. 

The son of Philip h. Petticolas. He practiced minia- 
ture painting in Richmond 1 805-1 834 after studying 
with Thomas Sully in Philadelphia. A portrait he 
painted in oils of John Marshall is in the collection of 
Mr. Malcolm G. Brace, South Boston, Virginia. 
Petticolas made two visits to London, the last in 1826. 

I. Elihu Etting. Signed "E. F. Petticolas 1799." 

Pennsylvania Academy. 

Penney — Petticolas, E. F. : 130 

b. i-jOo; d. /c?^J. 
Miniature painter. 

Petticolas painted miniatures for years in Rich- 
mond, Virginia. 

1. George Washington. 

Mr. Charles Frank, Washington, D. C. 

2. George W^ashington. "Washington painted from life at 
Philadelphia, 1796, P. A. Petticolas." 

Mr. F. C. Sayles, Pawtucket, R. I., 1881. 

PINE, Robert Edge 

b. //JO or I'/^z London; d. November /p, 1788^ Phila- 
Portrait and historical painter. 

Pine painted in England for some years before coming 
to the United States in 1784 with his family. In Phila- 
delphia he painted "The Congress Voting Indepen- 
dence," which Savage later added to. The picture may 
be taken as a group of miniature likenesses. A miniature 
by Pine of George the Third was in the Wellesley 
Collection in England lately dispersed at auction. 


Flourished 1820-1822^ Washington ^ D. C, and Philadelphia. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature and historical painter. 

She painted portraits in Washington, D. C, about 

1820. In 1 821 she moved to Philadelphia. See Scharf, 

"History of Philadelphia," v. 2. 

PORTER, John S. 

Flourished i8j2-i8jj^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

Petticolas, P. A. — Porter: 131 

PRATT, Matthew 

b. September 2j, //J^, Philadelphia; d. January y, /cS'05, 

Portrait painter. 

Pratt studied with his maternal uncle James Clay- 
poole. About 1764 he studied in London under West. 
In 1770 he went to Ireland and while there he painted a 
portrait of Archdeacon Mann. He sailed for the 
United States in June of the same year. The writer has 
been unable to find a trace of the miniatures he is said 
to have painted. 

PRATT, Robert M. 

b. 181 1, Binghampton, N. Y.; d. August j/, iSSS, New 

Geni'e painter and portrait painter in oils and ?ni}iiature. 
A pupil first of S. F. B. Morse and later of C. C. 
Ingham, Robert Pratt was better known as a figure 
painter than as a painter of portraits. He was elected 
N. A. in 1 851 and exhibited at the Academy. 


Flourished 1802^ Salem. 
Miniature painter. 

"1802. Mr. Verstille and J. Purinton draw minia- 
tures." Felt's "x^nnals of Salem." 


b. before iy6j Ireland; d. October 24, 1802, Montreal, 
Canada. Miniature painter. 

Nothing is known of Ramage until his entering the 
Dublin Society Schools in 1763. He was practising as 

Pratt, M.— Ramage: 132 

an artist and goldsmith in Boston in 1775. An ardent 
Tory he served as second lieutenant in the Royal Irish 
Volunteers during that year. In 1776 he was in Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. He again served with the British troops 
during 1777 in New York, remaining, however, after 
their departure and establishing himself as an artist at 
25 William Street. While he was in New York he painted 
a miniature of George Washington who noted in his 
diary for October 1789: "Sat for Mr. Rammage near 
two hours today, who was drawing a miniature of me 
for Mrs. Washington." The frame of the Washington 
miniature is of chased gold made by Ramage himself. 
He fled to Canada to avoid domestic difficulties and 
settled there permanently in 1794. Miniatures by 
Ramage are excellent. 

1. John Hampton Chase of Maryland. 

Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

2. George Clinton. 

Mr. J. S. Van Cortlandt, Croton, N. Y., 1892. 

3. Elbridge Gerry. Mr. E. T. Gerry, N. Y., 1892. 

4. Mrs. Elbridge Gerry. Mr. E. T. Gerry, N. Y., 1892. 

5. Mrs. Elbridge Gerry. 

Mrs. J. T. Clay, Marysville, Va., 1892. 

6. Mrs. Alexander McComb. 

Mrs. D. L. Trumbull, Norwich, Conn., 1898. 

7. John Pintard, 1787. N. Y. Historical Society. 

8. Mrs. John Pintard, 1787. N. Y. Historical Society. 

9. Jonathan Trumbull. Stan. V. Henkels sale, 1896. 

10. George Washington, 1789. 

Mrs. M. Beach, Peekskill, N. Y., 1897. 

11. George Washington. Mr. C. Allen Munn, N.Y. 

Ramage — Continued: 133 

12. Major General Anthony Wayne. 

Major Wayne, Paoli, Penn., 1892. 

13. Gen. J. J. Van Rensselaer. Dr. J. J. Van Rensselaer. 

14. William Few. 

i^;, Mrs. William Few, 

16. Isaac Coles. 

17. Mr. Philip Livingston. 2xi>^. Mr. Albert Rosenthal. 

18. Mrs. Philip Livingston. 2xiX. Mr. Albert Rosenthal. 

19. Portrait of an LInknown Woman. 

Mr. C. V. Wheeler, Washington. 

20. Anthony Rutgers, i Vs x i V2 Mr. John Hill Morgan. 

RENCH, Miss Polly 

Flourished before the American Revolution. 

Miniature painter. 

Charles W^illson Peale in his unpublished reminis- 
cences tells the story of his visit to Miss Rench. He 
asked if she had heard of Charles Willson Peale and 
when she said she had and wanted to take lessons of him, 
he replied "I am Mr. Peale and will be glad to give you 
lessons." In a letter to his son Rembrandt Peale he 
wrote: "She married Mr. Rush, then a young practi- 
tioner of law, since a judge. After her marriage she 
could never be prevailed on to paint a single picture; 
she often told me that she only followed the profession 
of painting to obtain a living, that it was very disagree- 
able to her to stare in the faces of gentlemen as she 
thought it savoured of impudence to paint ladies 
portraits was more agreeable to her feelings." A. H. 
Wharton in "Heirlooms and Miniatures" calls her 
Mary Wrench. 

Rench: 134 


See Caroline Schetky. 

RIDER, Alexander 

Flourished 1810-182^^ Philadelphia. 
Historical and ?niniature painter. 

Rider came to the United States with his countryman 
Krimmel from Germany in 1 8 10. In the catalogue of the 
Pennsylvania Academy Exhibition for 181 1 he is listed 
as a "Fancy Painter" and in 1812 as a "Miniature 
painter." There was a Rider in Charleston, South 
Carolina, in 1819 but it is not certain that he was the 
same man. 


b. I yds Scotland; d. i8oj. New York. 
Engraver and miniature painter. 

Roberts came to the United States in 1768 and 
practiced miniature painting and stipple engraving and 
also drew portraits in crayons. He gave up art ulti- 
mately to carry out his experiments in steam navigation. 

ROBERTSON, Alexander 

b. May /j, 1772, Aberdeen., Scotland; d. 1841^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Alexander Robertson, the brother of Archibald 
Robertson, studied in London under Samuel Shelly 
the miniature painter. He came to New York in 1792 
and settled there permanently. 

Richardson — Robertson, A.: 135 

ROBERTSON, Archibald 

b. May <?, //^J, Monymusk, near Aberdeen^ Scotland; 

d. iSjS-, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

The brother of Alexander and Andrew Robertson. 
All three brothers were miniature painters, Andrew, 
however, never coming to the United States. Archi- 
bald was a friend of Raeburn and Wier in Edinburgh 
and together they used the green room of the theatre 
as a studio. He went to London in 1786 and received 
instruction in miniature painting from Peacock and 
Charles Sheriff. He also studied at the Royal Academy 
under Reynolds and West. In 1791 he came to New 
York and went shortly to Philadelphia with a letter 
to Washington from Lord Buchan which led to his 
painting a miniature oi the First President. He then 
settled permanently in New York. With his brother 
Alexander he started a drawing academy. Besides his 
work in miniature he drew in crayons and was some- 
thing of an architect. "The Papers oi Andrew Rob- 
ertson" is the title of a book edited by his daughter 
that contains valuable information concerning minia- 
ture painting. See also: "Century Magazine," May, 

1. George Washington, on marble. 1791. 

Mrs. C. W. Darlington, Utica, 1897. 

2. Martha Washington. 1792? 

Mrs. C. W. Darlington, Utica, 1897. 

3. Commodore Thomas Truxton, 1802. 

Mr A. J. Robertson, 1897. 

Robertson, A.: 136 


4- Jonathan Trumbull, 1791. 

Heirs of Mrs. T. W. S. Hubbard, N. Y., 1897. 

5. Alexander Hamilton. "Engraved by E. Prud'homme 
from the Original Miniature, by Arch. Robertson. " 

Longacre's "National Portrait Gallery." 

6. Colonel Tobias Lear. 


b. before iy6^, Dublin, Ireland; d. 1802, Futtehpore, 

Miniature painter. 

The son of a jeweler in Dublin and the brother of 
Charles Robertson who was also a miniature painter, 
the first that is definitely known of Walter Robertson 
is that he attended the Dublin Society schools in 1765. 
In 1768 he was established as a miniature painter and 
exhibited from 1769 to 1775 and in 1777. About 1784 
he moved to London returning to Dublin in 1792 where 
he was presently declared bankrupt. He then took 
passage to the United States, sailing with Gilbert 
Stuart. He worked in Philadelphia and New York copy- 
ing some of Stuart's portraits in miniature. In 1795 he 
sailed for India where he died. He was known as "Irish " 
Robertson, to distinguish him from the two Scotch 
brothers of the same name. 

1. George Washington, after Stuart. Engraved by Robert 

2. George Washington, 1794. 

General E. L. Rogers, Baltimore. 
Destroyed in the Baltimore fire of 1904. Reproduced 
in the "Century Magazine," May, 1892. 

Robertson, W\: 137 

3- Martha Washington. Owned at one time by G. W. 
Custis. Engraved by Longacre. 

4. Alexander Hamilton. Engraved by Graham. 

5. Michael Nolan. 

6. Mrs. Abbot. The Wellesley Collection, England, 1913. 


Flourished i8iy-i82g, Philadelphia. 
Miniature Painter. 

Robinson was an Englishman who settled in Phila- 
delphia in 1 8 17 where he died about 1829. 

1. William Bingham. Penn. Academy, 1849. 

2. Benjamin West. Penn. Academy, 18 17. 

3. John Beale Boardley. 

4. Joseph Bispham. 

5. John Sergeant. 

6. Samuel Milligan. Signed "J. R. 1819. " 

7. Portrait in Miniature of the Artist's Wife. 

Penn. Academy, 18 17. 

8. John C. Craig. 3 x3K- 

Mrs. Edward E. Biddle, Pa., 1920. 

9. Nicholas Biddle, 1819. 

10. Captain Dulles, U. S. N., 1823. 

11. James Lyle. 

12. Mrs. Sterling. 


Flourished iy82^ Salem. 
Miniature painter. 

Robinson J. — Rogers: 138 

ROGERS, Charles 
Flourished 18^6^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 

ROGERS, Nathaniel 

b. 1788^ Bridgehampton^ L. L; d. there, December <5, 

18^^. Miniature painter. 

Apprenticed to Joseph Wood in New York after that 
painter had dissolved his partnership with John Wesley 
Jarvis, Nathaniel Rogers often painted the minor parts 
of his master's miniatures. Besides this training he also 
received much assistance from "Mysterious Brown." 
About 181 1 he started painting professionally and 
worked almost exclusively in New York as a fashionable 
miniature painter. He was a member of the National 
Academy in 1826. He was retired later as Honorary 
member for non-residence. 

I. Fitz-Greene Halleck. 

1. Henry Howland, 1822. Metropolitan Museum. 

3. Mrs. Gabriel Manigault. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

4. Duncan C. Pell. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

5. Charles Tyler Savage. Worcester Art Museum. 

6. Mrs. Charles Tyler Savage. Worcester Art Museum. 

7. Portrait of a Man, signed "Rogers." Ehrich Galleries. 
8-1 1. Frame Containing Four Miniatures. 

N. A. Exhibition,! 827. 
ROWAND, William 

Flourished 1777^ Neiv York. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

He inserted an advertisement in the "New York 
Royal Gazette" for December 6, 1777 announcing his 
arrival from Glasgow. 

Rogers, C. — Rowand: 139 

5 ^ 

j''^>v'^ /■■.?« -: ^ 

RUSSELL, Moses B. 

Flourished 18^4-18^4^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 
I. Portrait of a Man. 

Mr. Joseph Stewart, Washington, D. C. 


Flourished iSjy^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished i'/8j-iS22^ Connecticut. 

Engraver and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 


b. November ^5, ///o, Gloucester., Mass; d. February 2/, 

184^^ Boston. 
Portrait and historical paijiter. 
I. John William Quincey. Litchfield Hist. Society. 


b. October 24, /808, London; d. October 2j, /c?^/, Phila- 

John Sartain received instruction in miniature 
painting from Henry Richter while he was still in 
London. He came to the United States in 1830 and 
settled in Philadelphia. His "Reminiscences of a Very 
Old Man," written at the request of Thomas Janvier, is 
a valuable source book concerning the earlier artists of 
the country. 

Russell, M. B. — Sartain: 140 

1. Reverend John Breckenridge, 1835. 

Miss E. Sartain, Pa. 

2. Mr. Jones, 1833. Miss E. Sartain, Pa. 


Flourished 18^1-18^2, New York. 
Mmiatiire painter. 

SAVAGE, Edward 

b. November 26, iy6i^ Princeton., Mass.; d. there ^ July <5, 


Engraver and portrait and historical painter. 

At first a goldsmith. Savage took to painting about 
1789 and started a portrait of Washington that year. 
He went to London in 1791 and learned engraving; and 
returned to the United States, in 1794, as a professional 
engraver. In Philadelphia he had as his assistant David 
Edwin and, as his apprentice, John Wesley Jarvis. His 
engraving "Washington and his Family" 1788 is his 
best known work. See: Pine^ in the present work. 

1. Self portrait. Worcester Art Museum. 

2. Sarah Seaver Savage. Worcester Art Museum. 

3. Eben Seaver. Worcester Art Museum. 

4. Robert Treat Paine. "Drawn and Engraved by J. B. 
Longacre from a Sketch by Savage." 

SCHETKY, Caroline 

Flourished 1820-184.'/^ Philadelphia and Boston. 
Miniature and water color painter. 

Caroline Schetky married T. M. Richardson and as 
Caroline Schetky Richardson exhibited at the Boston 
Athenaeum. Longacre in a portion of his "Diary" 

Saunders — Schetky: 141 

published in the "Pennsylvania Magazine of History" 
tells of seeing her in Boston. The entry for July 26, 1825 
reads: "Spent the evening at Mr. Stuart's with his 
family and Misses Schetky and Goodridge." Besides 
her work in miniature she painted landscapes and 

1. Signor Arfossi, of the Italian Opera House, London. 

2. Alexander Reinagle, 1814, 


Flourished 1821-182'/, New England and Reading, Pa. 
Portrait and miniature pai?jter; and portrait draughtsman in 

1. Miniature of Napoleon. Penna. x'^cademy, 1827. 

2. Deborah Ward. 


Flourished 1840, Halifax, N. S. 

Miniature painter and silhouettist. 

Seager came originally from London. He visited the 
United States and Canada. He was in Halifax in 1840 
making profiles in bronze, painting miniatures and 
giving drawing lessons. He may have been Edward 
Seager who lived in Boston from 1845 to 1850. 

SEAGER, Mrs. and Miss 
Flourished i8j^, New York. 
Miniature painters. 

SEAMAN, Charles 

Flourished i8j4, New York. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Schoener — Seaman: 142 

SEL, Jean B. 

Flourished 1820-18JO, New Orleans. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

A portrait in oil by Sel of Governor A. B. Roman is in 
the Louisiana State Museum. 

Flourished //cJj, Baltimore. 
Miniature painter. 

He advertised in Goddard's "Maryland Journal and 
Baltimore Advertiser" for h^x'A 22, 1783. 

SHARPLES, Mrs. (Ellen) James 

b. March 4^ 17^9 Birmingham^ England; d. March 4^ 

1849, Bristol, England. 
Portrait painter in pastel and miniature. 

Mrs. Sharples, the wife of James Sharpies (1750- 
1811) the famous pastel portrait painter, often copied 
her husband's pictures. \x\ her own words: "Mr. 
Sharpies was usually engaged drawing in crayons the 
portraits of the most distinguished Americans, Foreign 
Ministers, and other distinguished visitants from 
Europe: copies were frequently required; these I under- 
took, and was so far successful as to have as many 
commissions as I could execute. They were thought 
equal to the originals, price the same. We lived in good 
style, associating in the first society. I was too nervous 
to practice drawing original portraits, being always 
exceedingly agitated when I attempted them." 

She bequeathed a large sum of money for the founding 
of the Bristol Fine Arts Academy and also the ninety- 

Sel — Sharpies: 143 


seven pictures by her husband, herself, James Junior 
and Rolinda, called "The Sharpies Collection." 

1. George Washington. After James Sharpies. On ivory. 

General E. L. Rogers, Baltimore, 1892. 
Probably destroyed in the Baltimore Fire. 

2. George Washington, x^fter James Sharpies. On ivory. 

Miss A. E. Evans, New Rochelle, N. Y., 1892. 
See "Magazine of American History," v. 11, p. 513. 


Flourished 184^-1846, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

SHUMWAY, Henry Colton 

b. July 4^ i8oy^ Middleton, Conn.; d. May 6, 1884, New 

Miniature paititer. 

Shumway came to New York in 1827 and studied at 
the National Academy. In 1829 he began his pro- 
fessional career as a miniature painter in New York and 
other cities. He was elected N.A. in 1832. During the 
Civil W^ar he took an active part as Colonel of the 
Seventh New York Regiment. A captain of the New 
York State Militia for twenty eight years he was also 
a member of the veteran corps. /\fter the Civil War 
when the daguerreotype diminished the demand for 
miniatures he tinted photographs. Before this time, 
however, his work was greatly in demand. 

I. Henry Clay. 

2. Cyrus W. Field. 

U. S. National Museum. 
Shepherd — Shumway: 144 


3- Honorable Gideon Lee. N. A, Exhibition, 1838. 

4. Mrs. Gideon Lee. N. A. Exhibition, 1838. 

5. Prince Napoleon, Later Napoleon IIL 

Rev. Mr. Stewart, U. S. N., 1870. 

6. Judge Storrs. 

7. Daniel Webster. 

8. Colonel Wads worth. 

SIMES, Mary Jane 
Flourished 1826-18JI, Baltimore. 
Miniature painter. 

She exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy. 

SMITH, James P. 

b. about iSoj; d. 1888, Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

Charles Henry Hart dedicated his book "Life 
Masks of Eminent Americans" as follows: "To the 
Memory of James P. Smith, miniature painter who 
first developed my taste for art I inscribe this volume 
as a token of gratitude. " 
I. Miniature of Napoleon. After Vernet. 

Penn. xAcademy, 1827. 
1. Copy of a Miniature by Malbone. 

Penn. Academy, 1850. 

3. James P. Smith, i^iyii^,. 

Stan. V. Henkels Sale, 1920. 

4. Charles Smith. 2^x2>^. 

Stan. V. Henkels Sale, 1920. 

5. Charles Smith. 2K^x2>^. 

Stan. V. Henkels Sale, 1920. 

Simes — Smith, J. P.: 145 

SMITH, John Rubens 

b. about lyyo in England; d. August 21^ /c?^9, New York. 

Etcher^ mezzotint engraver and portrait painter in water 


John Rubens Smith was the son of the celebrated 
English engraver John Raphael Smith. He was in New 
York in 181 2 and went later to Boston as a drawing 
teacher. He returned shortly to New York and con- 
tinued to teach drawing. Miniatures by him are owned 
by the Brooklyn Museum and by Mr. John Hill 

SMITH, William Good 

Flourished 1844-1846, New York. 
Portrait pai}iter i)i oils atid miniature. 


b. April 180J, Salem, Mass.; d. there, Feb. ig, iSyd. 

Landscape, still life, portrait and miniature painter. 

Early in life Southward was a member of the boot and 
shoe firm of Kimball and Southward. He finally re- 
linquished business, however, went to Boston, studied 
under Ames and later accompanied that painter to 
Rome. A portrait of Southward by Ames is in the 
collection of the Ehrich Galleries. At one time he was 
a pupil of Thomas Sully. He settled in Salem after his 
studies and had a studio in the Bank Building on 
Central Street. See "Essex Institute Historical Collec- 
tions," volume 14, pages 77-80. 

1. Timothy Pickering, after Stuart. Essex Institute. 

2. George Washington, after J. W'right. Essex Institute. 

Smith, J. R. — Southward: I46 

SOUTHWORTH, Nathaniel 

b. 1806, Scituate^ Mass.; d. April 25, /c?5<?, Dorchester^ 

Miniature painter. 

He worked in Boston from 1842 to 1848 and then 
visited Europe. After his return he lived both in New 
York and Philadelphia. His miniatures are noted for 
their accurate drawing. 

I. Miss Foster of Scituate. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 
1. Miss Lucy Ellis. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

STAIGG, Richard Morrell 

b. September y, 18 ly^ Leeds., England; d. October 11, 1881^ 
Newporty R. I. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

Richard M. Staigg, or Stagg as the name is some- 
times spelled, worked in an architect's office about 1830- 
183 1 leaving in the latter year for the United States. 
He settled in Newport and, encouraged by Washington 
AUston, became an artist. His early work was entirely 
in miniature. He was elected N.A. in 1861, exhibiting 
regularly at the Academy displays. He visited Europe 
in 1 867-1 869 and 1 872-1 874. During his last years 
he took up portrait painting in oils and lived at New- 
port. At the sale of his effects there were twenty-five 
miniatures, one hundred and three oil paintings and a 
number of water colors. 

1. Washington Allston. Metropolitan Museum. 

2. W^ashington Allston. Rectangular. i^y-ix^^A- A rep- 
lica of a painting in 1 841. Boston Museum. 

Southworth — Staigg: 147 

3- Josiah Belknap. 

4. Charles T. Brooke. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

5. Mrs. John Castoff. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

6. Charles Codman. 

7. Mr. A. W. Dennis. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

8. Dr. Theophilus Dunn. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890 

9. Everett. 

10. Mrs. John Henry Gilliat. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

11. Mrs. Nathan Gould. Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

12. John F. Kensett. 

13. W. H. King Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

1 4. Abbott Lawrence. 

15. Reverend Dr. Lowell of Cambridge. 

16. Mrs. George C. Mason at 15 years of age. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. L, 1890. 

17. John Lothrop Motley, 1850-51. 

Lady Harcourt, England. 

18. Mrs. John Lothrop Motley, unfinished. 

Lady Harcourt, England. 

19. Daniel Webster. Engraved by Dodson and Cheney. 

20. Daniel Webster. Engraved by A. B. Durand. 

STEVENS, George W. 

Flourished 18^2, Boston. 
Miniature painter. 


See Anna C. Peale 

Stevens — S tough ton: 148 

STUART, Gilbert 

b. December j, I755-, near Kingston^ Rhode Island; d. 

July p, 1828^ Boston. 
Portrait painter and miniaturist. 

The late Charles Henry Hart wrote concerning Sarah 
Goodridge : 

"It was to show her how to paint that Stuart painted 
his only known miniature, a head of General Knox, 
which she failed in copying." However several minia- 
tures have been attributed to Gilbert Stuart. One of 
Joseph Anthony has been often reproduced. 

From 1773 to 1774 Stuart was in Edinburgh; from 
1774 to 1775 in Newport; from March 1775 to 1778 in 
London; from 1788 to 1793 in Dublin; from 1793 to 
late in the year 1794 in New York; from 1794 to 1803 
in Philadelphia; from 1803 to 1805 in Washington, 
D. C; and in 1806 he moved to Boston where he died 
in 1828. 

1. Captain Joseph Anthony. Attributed. 

Miss M. B. Smith, Pa., 1898. 

2. Anthony Elton. Oval. 2>^xiK. Boston Museum. 

3. John Henderson, the actor. On canvas. 

The Wellesley Collection, England. 

4. General Knox. Drexel Collection, Pa. 

5. George Washington. 8x5. On silk. 

Stan. V. Henkels Sale, 1920. 
SULLY, Lawrence 

b. December 28^ i7^9-> Kilkenny^ Ireland; d. 1804^ Rich- 
mond, Va. 
Miniature painter. 

Lawrence Sully was the elder brother of Thomas 

Stuart — Sully, L.: 149 

Sully. He came to the United States in 1792 and started 
as a "painter of devices." From Charleston, South 
Carolina, where he first lived, he went to Virginia the 
same year and established himself as a miniature 
painter in Richmond. In 1793 he married Sarah Annis 
of Annapolis and moved to Norfolk in 1801 with his 
brother Thomas who helped support the growing 
family by assisting in the miniature painting. He failed 
in 1803 and went to Richmond leaving his family in 
Norfolk for his brother to support. In x'\ugust 1804 they 
joined him a short time before his death. 

1. Cyrus Griffin. Oval. 2^4 x 2J4. 1799. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

2. Edward Drake Jackson. 2Hx i H. 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

3. Thomas West. 2>^x2>^. Signed "L. Sully." 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

4. Patrick Henry, 1795. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 
See Charles H. Hart, "Portraits of Patrick Henry," in 
"Numismatic and Antiquarian Society Proceedings" 
i^pril 17, 191 1. "Engraved by E. Wellmore from a 
painting by J. B. Longacre after an original miniature 
in the possession of John S. Fleming Esqr. of Virginia." 

5. Portrait of a Man. Signed "Sully 1798." 

Mr. John Hill Morgan, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

SULLY, Rosalie Kemble 

b. June jy 18/S, Philadelphia; d. there, Juiy 8, /S^/. 

Amateur miniature painter. 

Rosalie Kemble Sully was the stepdaughter of 

Thomas Sully. One of her miniatures was a copy of her 

father's portrait of Mrs. Sully. 

Sully, R. K.: 150 


SULLY, Thomas 

b. June lySj, Horncastle^ England; d. November 5, 18^2^ 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

The parents of Thomas Sully were English actors who 
came to Charleston, South Carolina, in 1792. He worked 
in an insurance company at an early age but neglecting 
his duties he was sent to study with a French miniature 
painter who was his uncle by marriage. In 1801 he went 
with his brother to Norfolk and later to Richmond. At 
Norfolk he painted his first portrait in oil. In 1806 he 
went to New York and received assistance from John 
Wesley Jarvis and in 1807 he moved to Boston to see 
Gilbert Stuart. He was in New York again in 1808, in 
Philadelphia in 1809, in London during 1809-18 10, 
returning to Philadelphia in the spring of the latter 
year. From then on Philadelphia remained his perma- 
nent home but he made frequent visits to other cities. 
In 1837 he again went to London and painted a portrait 
of Queen Victoria of which he made several replicas. 
Sully's "Register of Portraits" was published by the 
late Charles Henry Hart. 

Miss Maria Allison. 1802. S 

Thomas Armstead. 1801. 

Captain Bills. 1801. 

Mrs. Blythe, 1802. 

D. Burr. 1805. 

Reverend Buccanon. 1804. 

Mrs. Rebecca Cook, 1801. 

Mrs. Cooper, 1802. 

Mr. J. Dabney, 1806. 


egister, N 

0. 22. 

' 43- 


' 168. 


' 230. 

' 350- 

' 2>SS' 

' 388. 

Sully, T.: 



Mr. Davis, 1803. Sully's 


No. 423. 


I. Davis, 1804. 


" 420. 


Mr. Falcon, 1804. 


" 519. 


Mrs. Farlow, 1802. 


" 521. 


Lieutenant Gibbon, 1805. 


" 615. 


John Green, 1804, son of 

William Green. 


" ^SS- 


William Green, Comedian, 

1804. Sully's 


No. 658. 


John Grey, 1805. 


" 661. 


Chancellor Grimes, 1804. 


" 674. 


W'illiam Goddard, oval. 




John Holmes, 1804. Sully's 


No. 775. 


. Mrs. Hiott, "deceased 

from a sketch. " 


" 755- 


Mrs. Hopkins, 1803. 


" 783- 


Mrs. Jennings, 1802. " 


" 887. 


David Johnston, 1804. 


" 889. 


Mrs. Johnston, 1802. Painted 

from memory. 


" 893. 


Mrs. McKenzie, 1804. 


" 1122. 


Mary Matthews, 1803. " 


" 1158. 


Lawyer Nemo, 1803. " 


" 1260. 


Elizabeth New, 1802. " 


" 1261. 


M. Ott, jeweler, 1801. Mrs. 

L. W. Drexel. 


" 1^79- 


Caroline Shoemaker, of Balti- 

more, 1804. " 


" 1512. 


Sophia Sully, 1801. 

' ' 

" 1643. 


Chester Sully, 1801. "In Nor- 
folk, Virga. being my first 
attempt from life, for Mary 



" 1619. 

Sully, T.- 

-Continued: 152 


21,. Madame Solange of Norfolk, 


Sully's Register No. 1562. 
" 1707. 

' 1858. 

' 1887. 

' 1905- 
' 1908. 
' 1801. 
The Ehrich Galleries. 

34. Mrs. Tome, 1803. 
;^S' Mr. White, Glass Merchant, 

36. Mr. Wilson, 1803. 

37. Dudley Woodworth, 1 801. 

38. Mrs. Worseley, 1805. 

39. A Lady "from description." 

40. Portrait of a Child. 3X x 2>^ 

41. Edward Drake Jackson. 2 H x i >^. 

Stan. V. Henkels Sale, Dec. 1920. 

SULLY, Thomas Wilcocks 

b, Jan. J, /<?//, Philadelphia; d. there^ April i8y iS^y. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

The son of Thomas Sully, Thomas Wilcocks Sully 
often styled himself Thomas Sully, Jr. Forrest and a 
number of other famous actors of the day were his 
sitters for oil portraits. It has, however, been impos- 
sible to identify any of the miniatures he is said to have 


Flourished lydo^ Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 

He copied a miniature of Oliver Cromwell. 

TETLEY, William Birchall 

Flourished 1774-, New York. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

He inserted an advertisement in Rivington's "New 

Sully, T. W. — Tetley: 153 


York Gazette" for August 4 and September 8, 1774. 
Besides offering to paint portraits in oil he undertook 
to paint miniatures small enough for a bracelet or to 
be set in a ring. 


Flourished iSjS-iSjg^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Thomas exhibited miniatures at the National Aca- 
demy Exhibitions during 1 838-1 839. 

THOMPSON, William John 

b. lyyi:) Savannah, Ga.; d. 184^, Edinburgh, Scotland. 
Portrait painter in oils and miriiature. 

Thompson was a Scotch American who went to 
England and exhibited at the R.A. from 1796 to 1812. 
In the latter year he moved to Edinburgh where he 
was made an Academician of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1829. 
I. William Robertson. 

The Misses Blacklock, Charleston, S. C, 1901. 


Flourished iSog, Kingston, Jamaica and Halifax, N. S. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature and silhouette cutter 
and painter. 

John Thompson came from Kingston, Jamaica in 
1809 to Halifax, Nova Scotia and inserted an advertise- 
ment in the newspaper in which he stated that he had 
"returned to accomplish his tour of British America." 

Thomas — Thompson, J.: 154 

THORNTON, William 

b. May 2"/^ z/^/. Island of Jost Van Dyke^ West Indies; 
d. March 28, 1828, Washington, D. C. 

Physician, architect, engraver and portrait painter in oils 

and miniature. 

Dr. Thornton was of Quaker parentage. He studied 
medicine in Edinburgh but was also an accomplished 
architect and artist as well. He designed the Phila- 
delphia Library Building erected in 1790. He became 
Commissioner of Public Buildings in Washington, D. C. 
and drew the first plans for the United States Capitol 
Building. He also assisted Thomas Jefferson with the 
plans for the University of Virginia buildings. He be- 
came the first Chief of the Patent Office. An excellent 
account of Dr. Thornton by Mr. Allen C. Clark was 
published in "The Records of the Columbia Historical 
Society" Washington, D. C, 191 5. In 1781 Dr. Thorn- 
ton made a few engravings in mezzotint. 

1. George Washington. Profile in white on a blue ground. 
Cardboard. Water color. Loaned to National 
Museum by Mr. Walter G. Peter, Washington, D. C. 

2. Mrs. James Madison. Water color. 

Reproduced in "Scribner's," Oct. 1906. 

3. Mrs. Ann Brodeau. Water color. 

Miss V. Miller, Washington, D. C. 

4. Mrs. Thornton. Water color. 

Miss V. Miller, Washington, D. C. 

5. Mrs. Thornton. Water color. 

Mr. J. H. Smith, Washington, D. C. 

6. Self portrait. Water color. 

Mr. J. H. Smith, Washington, D. C. 
Thornton: 155 


•pa M 


D !0 > 

1 -^ s 

















The last two portraits reproduced in "Scribners, " 
Nov. 1906. 

TIEBOUT, Mademoiselle 
Flourished iSj/f^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Dunlap speaks of her as "Mademoiselle Tiebout 
of Paris. " 

TISDALE, Elkanah 

b. about lyyiy Lebanon^ Conn.; d. after iSj^. 

Miniature and historical painter. 

The only assistance Tisdale received in art was from 
the study of paintings by Trumbull in Lebanon. His 
picture "The Battle of Lexington" was engraved by 
Tiebout in 1797 and became highly popular. In 1807 he 
illustrated Alsop and Dwight's "Echo." He painted 
miniatures in New York in 1805 and later moved to 
Hartford where he became a member of "The Graphic 
Company" making vignettes for engravings. Li 1820 
he moved to New York, his connection with "The 
Graphic Company" continuing, however, until 1825. 
Li 1 826-1 827 he visited Albany with Benjamin Trott. 
He was also a writer and wrote the political satire 
"Gerrymander. " 

1. General Knox. 

Mr. A. H. Emmons, Norwich, Conn., 1907. 

2. Mrs. Jonathan Trumbull. 

Mrs. J. Trumbull, Norwich, Conn., 1897. 

3. T- G. C. Brainard. 

"Painted by Tisdale — Engraved by J. B. Longacre. " 

Tiebout — Tisdale: 156 

TORREY, Manasseh Cutler 

Flourished i8jo-i8j'/^ New York, Boston and Salem. 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

According to Stauffer, Manassah Cutler Torrey was 
the brother of C. C. Torrey the engraver. Cummings 
in his "Annals of the National Academy" records that 
on March 22, 1830 M. C. Torrey received the first of 
three premiums delivered by Henry Inman to the 
students of the National Academy. Felt in his "Annals 
of Salem," says that he worked from 1831 to 1837 both 
in Boston and Salem and that he died in the latter 
year, Dunlap speaks of his work as chiefly in miniature. 

TROTT, Benjamin 

b. about lyyo probably in Boston; still living in Baltimore 
in 1 8 41. 

Portrait painter in miniature and oils. 

Benjamin Trott probably came from Boston ac- 
cording to Dunlap but the precise information, after 
all, is of small moment. We know that he appeared 
in New York as a miniature painter about 1791 and 
left in 1793 for Philadelphia to make miniature copies 
of paintings for Gilbert Stuart. In 1796 he accompanied 
Elkanah Tisdale on a visit to Albany. Two years later 
he moved outside of Philadelphia near the Falls of the 
Schuylkill and had as neighbors David Edwin and 
Gilbert Stuart. His name is given in the New York 
directory for 1798 as a miniature painter living at i 
Wall Street. He returned shortly to Philadelphia. 
In 1805 he packed his painting materials in saddle bags 
and went on a horseback tour "to the western world 

Torrey — Trott : 157 


beyond the mountains," and returned to Philadelphia 
in 1806 after a very successful year. He lived at 231 
Mulberry Street until 1807, when he moved to Sixth 
and Minor. There he stayed until 18 10. In 1809-18 10 
he shared a studio with Thomas Sully on Sansom Street. 
He exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy, in 181 1 and 
181 2. In the former year Dunlap records a visit he 
paid, in company with Trott, to David Edwin's rooms 
to see the drawings of Charles Robert Leslie. Trott 
moved again in 18 13 and lived at 7 Little George Street 
until 1 8 19 when he moved to 165 Chestnut Street. 
He visited Charleston, South Carolina in the latter 
year. After remaining in Philadelphia for some time 
he mysteriously left for Newark where he lived in 
obscurity for a number of years. He then moved 
to New York. In the directory for 1 829-1 830 there is the 
following entry: "B. Trott, portrait and miniature 
painter. 15 Pine. Upstairs;" and in 1 832-1 833 he 
lived at 40 xArcade. The portraits in oils are said not to 
have been remarkable for artistic quality. The next 
move he made was to Boston in 1833, and the directory 
contains but one entry: "Benj. Trott, miniature painter. 
3 Scollay buildings. " The late Charles Henry Hart 
wrote: "He was painting in Baltimore in September 
1839, which is the last we hear of him." However, 
the Baltimore directory for 1840-1841 shows him as 
still living in the city. The entry reads: "B. Trott, 
portrait and miniature painter. Office cor. St. Paul and 
Fayette Sts. " Although he painted portraits in oil 
these have not been brought to light and Benjamin 
Trott is known only as a miniature painter. His fame 
rests upon a little more than a score of miniatures. 

Trott — Continued: 158 

But these rank with the work of Malbone, Fraser and 
Field; and time has substantiated the praise of his con- 
temporaries. In his later miniatures he left as the back- 
ground the cream colored ivory itself. His splendid 
portrait of Nicholas Biddle is an example of this prac- 
tice. It is reproduced in Professor McGrane's "Nicholas 

1. James Abercrombie, D.D., engraved by Edwin. 

2. Lewis x'^dams, 1828. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

3. Joseph i\nthony, 1738-1798. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

4. Mr. Aitken of South Carolina. 3 x 1}^. 

The Ehrich Galleries. 

5. Nicholas Biddle. 3f^x2><. Mr. E. Biddle, Pa. 

6. Mrs. Blair of Germantown. 

Exhibition, Newport, R. I., 1890. 

7. George Clymer, engraved by John Sartain, and also 
by Longacre. Originally owned by Mrs. G. Grant, 
Rome, Italy, and La Comtesse de Bryas, Paris, 1892. 

8. Solomon Etting. Pennsylvania Academy. 

9. Colonel James Gibson. 

Engraved by Goodman and Piggott. 

10. Mrs. Walter Livingston. 3 x 2>^. The Ehrich Galleries. 

11. Cornelius Lowe. 

12. Mr. Lyman, zyix lyi. The Ehrich Galleries. 

13. Mrs. Alexander Macomb. N. Y. Historical Society. 

1 4. Robert Morris. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

15. John Woods Power. 

Rhode Island School of Design. 

16. Mrs. Elizabeth Powel. Newport, R. I., 1884. 

17. James Richards. 

18. Lewis Sandars. Mr. Herbert L. Pratt. 

Trott — Continued: 159 






19. Honorable William Wilkins. 

20. Charles Wilkins, 1824? Oval. 2^x2%'. 

Mr. Herbert Du Puy. 

21. James Williams. Miss A; Cooper, Pa., 1898. 
22-25. ^^ Frame containing Four Miniatures. 

Pennsylvania Academy. 
I. Benjamin Wilcox. 2. A Lady in a Black Laced 
Veil. 3. and 4. unknown. 
26. George Washington. Engraved by Longacre. 

This was probably a miniature after the Stuart paint- 


b. Jufie 6y 7/5^, Le^a?io?2, Conn.; d. November 10, i8^j^ 
New York. 

Historical., portrait and miniature painter in oils on wood. 
Trumbull graduated from Harvard in 1773 and, 
Dunlap states: "This early entrance at college was, as 
he considers, one of the misfortunes of his life." When 
the Revolution started he became adjutant under 
General Gates in 1775. He was stationed at Roxbury 
during the Battle of Bunker's Hill and served later at 
Crown Point and Ticonderoga. He was also with 
Washington in New Jersey. In 1777 he resigned, paid 
a brief visit to Lebanon and went to Boston to study 
the paintings of Copley. He sailed for France in 1780 
and then went to London where he was arrested as a 
spy suspect and released through the intercession of 
Benjamin West. In 1782 he was back in Boston. The 
winter of 1 782-1 783 he passed at New Windsor. In 
1784 he went again to London. The next year he began 
to think seriously of the historical compositions for 

Trott — Trumbull: 160 

which he became famous. The first was of the Battle 
of Bunker's Hill. He visited France, returning to 
London in 1786. He made another visit to France in 
1789 and witnessed the fall of the Bastille. He then re- 
turned to the United States and made many trips about 
the country to obtain information for his paintings and 
subscribers for the engraved reproductions. The small 
oil miniature portraits he painted about this time for 
the actors in his pictorial dramas may be said to con- 
stitute his best work. In May 1794 he was appointed 
secretary to John Jay and sailed for England. Being in 
Paris in 1797 on a short visit concerning the engraving 
after the "Battle of Bunker's Hill" he was detained for 
the lack of a passport. The eloquence of Louis David 
before Talleyrand in behalf of the artist and his work ob- 
tained the passport and Trumbull returned to London. 
In 1804 he sailed for the United States visiting London 
during 1806-18 12. He settled in New York in the latter 
year. He wrote his autobiography in Philadelphia. 
Late in life he established the Trumbull Gallery in New 
Haven. In 18 16 he became president of the American 
Academy of Fine Arts. 

1. John Adams, 1792. Second President. (1735-1826.) 

2. Dr. Allen, 1827. unidentified. 

3 Fisher Ames. 1792. Orator and Lawyer. (1758-1808.) 

4. Judge Egbert Benson. 1792. Continental Congress; 

5. Honorable John Brooks, 1790. Governor Mass. 

6. John Brown. 1792. First LT.S. Senator from Kentucky. 


Trumbull — Continued: 161 


7- General Richard Butler. 1790. Of the Pennsylvania 
Line. b. Ireland; d. 1791. 

8. John Caldwell Calhoun. 1827. Vice President. (1782- 

9. Giuseppe Carrachi. 1792. Sculptor. (1751-1801.) 
Executed by Napoleon. 

10. Harriet Chew. 1793. 

11. Sophie Chew. 1793. 

12. Eleanor Custis. 1792. 

13. Tristram Dalton. 1792. U. S. Senator from Massa- 
chusetts. (1738-1817.) 

14. Henry Dwight. 1827. M. C. from Massachusetts. 

15. Oliver Ellsworth. 1792. Chief Justice. (1745-1807.) 

16. Temple Franklin. 1791. Grandson of Benjamin Frank- 
lin. (i76o?-i823.) 

17. Good Peter, a Chief of the Six Nations. 

18. Nathaniel Greene. 179-- Major-General. (1742- 
1786.) From memory. 

19. John Faucherand Grimke. 1791. Lieut. -Col. (1752- 

20. George Hammond. 1792. Peace Commissioner. (1763- 


21. Major Jonathan Haskell. 1791. Soldier and pioneer. 


22. Dr. Lemuel Hopkins of Hartford. 1793- Poet and 
Physician. (1750-1801,) 

23. Colonel William Hull. 1792. Governor of Michigan 
Territory. (1752-1825.) 

24. The Lifant. A chief of the Six Nations. 1792. 

25. Ralph Izard, 1791. U. S. Senator. (1742-1804.) 

Trumbull — Coiitinued: 162 

26. John Jay. 1793. Statesman. (1745-1829.) 

27. Rufus King. 1792. Statesman. (1755-1827.) 

28. John Langdon. 1792. U. S. Senator. (1739-1819.) 

29. Henry Laurens. 1791. Peace Commissioner. (1724- 

30. Arthur Lee. 1791. Diplomatist. (1740-1792.) 

31. Samuel Livermore. 1791. LI. S. Senator. (1732-1803.) 

32. Lieutenant Lawrence Manning. 1791. Of Lee's Legion 
at Eutaw. 

^2- Thomas Mifflin. 1791. Major General. (1744-1800.) 

34. Colonel Daniel Morgan. 1792. Of the Rifle Corps. 

35. General William Moultrie. 1791. Governor of S. C. 

36. Thomas Jackson Oakley. 1827. Judge. (1783-1857.) 

37. David B. Ogden. 1827. Lawyer. (1769-1849.) 

38. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. 1791. Major General. 

39. Thomas Pinckney. 1791. Major General. (1750-1828.) 

40. Brigadier General Rufus Putnam. 1790. Surveyor 
General. (1738-1790.) 

41. Jacob Read. 1790. M. C. from South Carolina. (1752- 

42. John Rutledge. 1791. Judge Supreme Court. (1739- 

43. Cornelia Schuyler. 

44. Philip John Schuyler. 1792. Major General. (1733- 

45. Theodore Sedgwick. 1791. M.C. (1746-1813.) 

46. Thomas Youngs Seymour. 1792. Major. (1757-1811.) 

47. Brigadier General Smallwood. 1792. After C. W. 
Peale. (1732-1792.) 

Trumbull — Contiuued: 163 

48. Julia Seymour. 1792. 

49. William Smith. 1792. M.C. Copy 1831 by Flagg. 

50. Captain Thomas Stevens. 1791- Probably from 
South Carolina. 

51. Jonathan Trumbull. 1792. Speaker U. S. H. R. (1740- 

52. Jonathan Trumbull Sr. Governor of Connecticut. 

53. John Trumbull. 1794. Author of "McFingal. " (1750- 

54. Faith Trumbull. 1791. Later Mrs. Daniel Wads- 
worth. ( 1 769-1 846.) 

55. Mrs. Trumbull. 1793. Of Lebanon, Conn. (1749- 

^6. Catherine W^adsworth. 1792. 

57. Harriet Wadsworth. 1791. Daughter of J. Wads- 
worth. (1769-1793.) 

58. Mrs. Washington. 1792. Wife of George Washington, 
( 1 732-1 802.) 

i;g. General Otho Holland Williams. 1790. Copy by 
Flagg. 1842. ( 1 749-1 800.) 

60. The Young Sachem. A Chief of the Six Nations. 

The above sixty miniatures painted in oil on wood are 
at the Yale School of Fine Arts. They are oval — about 
four inches high by three inches wide. 

61. Egbert Benson. 1792. 

Hon. J. Jay, Katonah, N. Y., 1892. 

62. Joseph T. Buttingham. 2>^xi:^4. Boston Museum. 

63. Giuseppe Caracchi. 3^4x3. 

Mr. R. W^ De Forest, N. Y. 

Trumbull — Continued: 164 

64. Benjamin Franklin. 

65. General Nathaniel Greene. Mrs. Louis H. Meeder, Jr. 

66. Major Jedediah Huntington. ^H ^ 3^- 

Miss L. L. Huntington, 1909. 

67. Major William Jackson, 4 x 2>^. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

68. Thomas Jefferson. 1787. 

Mrs. J. W. Burke, Alexandria, Va., 1892. 

69. Captain Thomas Jervey. 

Mrs. H. J. Jervey, Charleston, S. C. 

70. John Lawrence. 1792. N. Y. Historical Society. 

71. Samuel Livermore. 1792. 

Mrs. C. G. Saunders, Lawrence, Mass., 1892. 

72. Mrs. Robert Morris. 1790. 

Mrs. S. Ambler, Hume, Va., 1892. 

73. General Thomas Pinckney. 

Mrs. Thomas Pinckney, Charleston, S. C. 

74. Martha Washington. U. S. National Museum. 

75. George Washington. U. S. National Museum. 

TUCKER, Benjamin 

b. Novemi^er /j, //68y Newbury, Mass.; d. afler lygd 

probably in Newbury. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

See J. J. Currier: "History of Old Newbury," 

TWIBILL, George W. 

b. 1806 Lampeter, Lancaster Co., Pa.; d. Feb. 18, i8j6, 

New York. 
Portrait painter. 

TwiBiLL was the pupil of J. Parisen and Henry In- 
man. Cummings wrote: "His portraits in oil in small 

Tucker — Twibill: 165 

were of an excellence seldom equalled. " He was elected 
Associate N.A. in 1832 and N.A. in 1833. 

1. Colonel Trumbull. Full length, cabinet size. 

National Academy of Design. 

2. Colonel Trumbull. Full length, cabinet size. 

Mrs. Benjamin Silliman, 1917. 

3. Colonel Trumbull. Full length, cabinet size. 

4. General Cummings. Full length, cabinet size. 

VAIL, Miss A. D. 

Flourished 18^8-1841^ New York. 
Miniature painter. 

Miss Vail exhibited miniatures at the National 
Academy from 1838 to 1841. 


Flourished 182^., New York. 
Miniature painter. 


b. i'/g8 Whitehaven, Cu7nberland, England; d. Dec. 26, 

184^, Halifax, N. S. 
Portrait painter in oils. Painted a few miniatures. 

William Valentine left England in 1818 and settled 
permanently in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He was at first 
a house painter and interior decorator of the firm of 
Bell and Valentine until the partnership dissolved in 
1824. But his time was not completely occupied at this 
work and as early as 18 19 he was teaching drawing "in 
all its branches." In 1826 he visited Boston. His 
earliest identified portrait dates from 1828. About 

Vail — Valentine: 166 

the summer of 1836 he visited London, where he made 
copies of portraits that were greatly admired, and re- 
turned about the spring of 1837. About 1842 he started 
taking daguerreotypes and was never free from having, 
at times, to continue his trade as decorator. A fire 
which burned his studio on Bell Lane a few years 
before his death destroyed a number of his paintings and 
his interest both in life and art never again fully re- 
vived. See Mr. Harry Piers' paper in "Nova Scotia 
Historical Society Collections," v. 18. 

1. Edward Sellon. On paper. 

2. Sarah Sellon. Valentine's second wife. 

3. Self portrait. Profile on bristol board. 

Mrs. C. S. Pickford, Halifax, N. S. 

VALLEE, Jean Francois de La 

Flourished ijS^-iSi^. 

Miniature painter and silhouettist. 

Vallee was a Frenchman who came to the United 
States to start a cotton mill near Alexandria, Virginia. 
A letter from Jefferson to Vallee written previous to the 
artist's departure is dated Paris September, 1785. 
Vallee was unsuccessful in his attempt and moved to 
Philadelphia and finally to New Orleans about 181 5. 
Besides painting miniatures on ivory he cut a few 
silhouettes, among them one of Washington in 1795. 

1. Andrew Jackson. 3x23/^. 1815. 

Miss L. L. Hunt, Barry town, N. Y., 1897. 

2. Miniature. Mr. H. DuPuy, Pittsburgh. 

3. Theodore M. Flotard. 

Mrs. Ethel (Halliday) Anderson, Washington, D. C. 

Vallee: 167 

< > 

S to t/) 

2 i^ 


b. October i/"/6, Kingston^ Ulster Co., N. Y.; d. there , 18^2. 

Historical and portrait painter. 

In 1792 John Vanderlyn went with his brother Dr. 
Peter Vanderlyn to New Yorls;. He found employment 
there in the print store of a Mr, Barrow in 1794. During 
his leisure hours he attended Archibald Robertson's 
Drawing Academy and Aaron Burr became his patron. 
He was in Europe during 1 801-18 10 and while in Paris 
painted the celebrated nude "Ariadne." In 1814 he 
returned to the United States. He died in extreme 
poverty in his native town. An annonymous writer 
in "Putnams Magazine," for June, 1854, gives some 
personal recollections of the artist. 

I. Aaron Burr. Oil. 10x8. N. Y. Historical Society. 

Flourished iSo6-iSj^. 
Miniature painter. 

In the "Polyanthus" for June 1806 there is an en- 
graving by S. Harris after Vandyck's portrait of John 
Winthrop. Possibly this was James Vandyck. His 
name appears in the New York directory for 1834-1835 
as "James Vandyck, miniature painter, 62 Forsyth." 
I. James Lyon. Mr. Luke Vincent Lockwood. 


b. about 1755; d. Dec. 6, /Soj, Bostof/. 
Mi?jiature painter. 

William Verstille started painting about 1769 
and lived both in Boston and Salem. In 1782 he was 
working in Philadelphia and advertised in the Pennsyl- 

Vanderlyn — Verstille: 168 

vania Gazette. Dr. Bentley's "Diary" contains the 
two following entries concerning the artist: "A Mr. 
Verstille has at present much fame and it is believed 
great success. 1802." "My miniature was by Hazlitt, 
now celebrated in London. The dress was changed by 
Verstille from Connecticut. 181 8." 

1. Captain John Carlton, U. S. N. Essex Institute. 

2. Jacob Crowninshield. 

3. Mrs. Mary Crowninshield Silsbee. 

4. John Dabney, Post Master. 3 x 2>^. 1809. 

Essex Institute. 

5. Mrs. S. H. Ward. 1803. Miss M. W. Nichols. 

6. Joshua Ward, Junior. 


Flourished 1784^ Philadelphia. 
Miniature painter. 


Flourished iS^d-iS^"/^ Boston. 
Miniature painter. 


b. ?; d. May 20, lydy, Charleston, S. C. 

The Reverend Robert Wilson in his paper on "Art 
and Artists in Provincial Carolina" suggests W^arwell 
as the painter of miniatures of William Gibbs and Isaac 
Mazyck the Third, both bearing the date 1760. He 
quotes the following item from the S. C. Gazette for 
June 9, 1767: "Died, on the 29th INIay, Mr. Warwell, 
Sr., a noted Limner. " 

W^alters — Warwell : 1 69 


See Caroline Mimger. 


b. 1 68^^ Scotland; d. August 22^ i7^^-> P^^(h Amboy^ 

N. J. Portrait Painter. 

John Watson was a Scotchman who came to the 
Colonies in 171 5 and settled in Perth Amboy. He 
revisited Europe for a while returning with a collection 
of pictures which Dunlap wrote could be called the first 
of its kind in the country. It was subsequently des- 

1. Governor Keith. India ink. 

Historical Society of Penn. 

2. Governor Keith's wife. India ink. 

Historical Society of Penn. 


b. 1795; d. May 11, 184^, New York. 
Miniature painter. 

He exhibited miniatures at the National Academy 
between 1839 and 1843. -^^ ^^^ elected Associate N. A. 
in 1839. 
I. Unknown Man. "Engraved by J. B. Longacre from a 
miniature by Mr. Weinedel." 


Flourished 18J4.-18J9, Philadelphia and New York. 
Engraver and miniature painter. 

Wellmore was a pupil of Longacre in Philadelphia 
and engraved a number of portraits for the "National 

Washburn — W^ellmore: 170 


Portrait Gallery. " He also worked in New York. In 
his later years he took to the ministry. 


Flourished iSi^, Utica, N. Y. 
Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

He also made profile portraits in pencil. 


b. before iSj2; d. iSyi. 
Miniature painter. 

He exhibited miniatures at the National Academy 
during 1842 and 1844. He was elected N. A. in 1869 at 
the same time as Eastman Johnson. 
I. Dr. J. W. Francis N. A. Exhibition, 1842. 

WERTMULLER, Adolph Ulric 

b. February 18, 7/5/, Stockholm, Sweden; d. October 5, 

18/1 at Claymont near Wilmington, Delaware. 
Portrait painter in oils, miniature and crayon. 

Wertmijller came to the United States and settled in 
Philadelphia in 1794. From 1796 to 1800 he went back 
to Stockholm returning in the latter year to settle 
permanently in this country. Washington sat to him 
for his portrait in 1794. His painting of "Danae" was 
the first painting of the nude figure publicly exhibited 
in this country. He painted portraits of Gustavus III, 
Gustavus IV and five portraits of George Washington. 
The "Schedule" of the sale of his effects lists, besides 
his materials for oil paintings, a complete set of brushes, 
glasses, colors and ivory for miniature painting. 

Wentworth — Wertmuller: 171 

I. Elizabeth Coates Butler. Oil, cabinet size. 

Mrs. T. R. Ellis, Pa., 1898. 
1. General Washington. "From person; small oval, 6 

in. by 5X in. 1794." 

See: "Schedule of Property, of the Late Adolphs 

Ulrich Wertmiiller, " 1812. 

WEST, Benjamin 

b. October 10, /yjS near Springfield^ Chester Co., Pa.; d. 

March 11, 1820, London. 
Historical and portrait paiiiter. 

Benjamin West painted portraits in Philadelphia 
1756 and in New York 1758. Two years later he sailed 
for Rome, remaining three years. He spent the rest 
of his life in London and became president of the 
Royal Academy. His studio was open to all the young 
American artists either staying in or passing through 
London. Stuart, Trumbull, Fulton, Wright and Mal- 
bone are a few of the many painters he befriended as 
well as instructed. 

The miniature portrait of himself listed below was 
shown him in London. He identified it as an early 
painting and remarked: "Now this is not a bad picture 
for one who had never seen a miniature!" 
I. Self portrait at the Age of Eighteen. 

Pennsylvania Academy Exhibition, 18 17. 
1. Lord Byron's Mother. Signed "B. West, 1799." 

Bowdoin College. 
WEST, William Edward 

b. December 10, 1788 , Lexington, Ky.; d. November 2, 

1 8 §7, Nashville, Tenn. 
Historical painter and portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

West painted miniatures for some time before going 

West, B. — West, W. E.: 172 


to Philadelphia about 1807 to study with Thomas 
Sully. x\fter this he painted in 18 19 in Natchez, Tennes- 
see and finally in 1820 he sailed for Europe. At Leghorn 
he painted a portrait of Lord Byron. In 1824 he was in 
Paris and in 1825, London. He returned to the United 
States in 1839 staying in Baltimore until 1840. He then 
moved to New York and in 1855 to Nashville. His por- 
traits in oil include those of Percy Shelley, Washington 
Irving, Countess Guiccioli and Mrs. Hemans. See 
"Century Magazine," Oct. 1805, and "Putnam's" 
Sept. 1907. 

I. Percy Bysshe Shelley. 9x8. Oil. 

Mrs. J. Dunn, 1905. 
WESTON, Mrs. Mary 

Flourished mid nineteenth century ^ Hartford. 
Miniature painter. 


b. SciOj Washington Co., Michigan; still living i8qj. 
Portrait, miniature, still life and landscape painter. 

Wheeler first received his instructions in art from an 

itinerant miniature painter, then at Detroit University. 

In 1 855 he married and moved to Hartford. See French, 

"Art and Artists in Connecticut." 

WHITE, John Blake 

b. September 2, lySi near Eutaw Springs; d. August 2^, 

i8^g, Charleston, S. C. 
Lawyer, politician, author, historical painter and portrait 

painter in oils and miniature. 
John Blake White as a young man studied law at 

Weston — White: 173 


Columbia, S. C; then accompanied S. F. B. Morse to 
Europe about 1800; studied art under Benjamin West 
for four years and finally resumed the study of the 
law. He was repeatedly elected to the State Legislature 
of South Carolina. During his leisure he painted many 
portraits, wrote plays and signed a number of historical 
I. Mrs. J. B. White. 

Mrs. G. L. Buist, Charleston, S. C, 1902. 


b. //(S*/, Boston; d. there, October 21, iSjo. 

Silhouettist and portrait painter in oils and yniniatures. 

Henry Williams seems to have worked exclusively 
in Boston. Dunlap speaks of him as also modelling in 
wax and being a professor in electricity. One of his 
portraits in oil was of Josiah Thomas. He probably 
made the silhouette signed "Williams" in the possession 
of Mr. D. M. Prouty of Boston and the one of Mary 
Moody Emerson, also signed "Williams," reproduced 
in Emerson's "Journal" volume four. The Worcester 
Art Museum owns a portrait in wax by Williams of 
Eben Larkin. 

1. Samuel Larkin. Worcester Art Museum. 

2. William Lovering. 2>^ x 2. The Ehrich Galleries. 

3. Charles Bertody. 3^4 x 3. The Ehrich Galleries. 

WILSON, John T. 

Flourished 1844-1860, New York. 
Portrait and miniature painter. 

Williams — Wilson, J. T.: 174 


WILSON, Matthew 

b. July //, 1814^ London; d. Feb. 2j, i8g2^ Brooklyn^ N. Y. 

Portrait painter in oils, crayons and in miniature. 

A pupil of Henry Inman, Wilson first exhibited 
miniatures in Philadelphia. He was in Paris in 1835. 
In 1843 ^^ was elected N. A. During 1 861-1863 in 
Hartford he became a popular portrait draughtsman 
in crayons and pastel. In 1863 he moved to Brooklyn. 
He worked very rapidly often completing a portrait a 
day, but his work suffered from his haste in execution. 
Among the sitters for his portraits in oils were Tilden, 
Gideon Welles, Gallatin, Washington Irving, Fenimore 
Cooper, Thaddeus Stevens and Lincoln. 

WOOD, Joseph 

b. about ly/S Clarkstown^N. Y.; d. 18^2^ Washington^ 

Portrait painter in oils and miniature. 

The son of a farmer who was also the sheriff in his 
native town, Joseph Wood turned to art as a profession 
much against his father's wishes and, about 1794, set 
out on foot for New York with a few dollars in his 
pocket intending to earn his living with his pencil. His 
inclinations were for drawing landscapes but by chance 
his talents were directed toward miniature painting. 
After a number of years at odd work during the winter 
and violin playing during the summer, he chanced to 
see a miniature in a shop window and asked permission 
to copy it. This started him on his career. In 1804 he 
formed a partnership with John Wesley Jarvis at 40 
Nassau Street and that year both received assistance 

Wilson, M.— Wood: 175 

from Edward Malbone. The partnership was dissolved 
in 1809 when Wood took a studio at 160 Broadway 
until 1811-13. He then went to Philadelphia where he 
had a studio at 93 South Third Street. He lived in 
Philadelphia at least as late as 18 17 and exhibited at 
the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. He moved 
later to Washington and in 1827, had rooms on the 
north side of Pennsylvania Avenue between Ninth and 
Tenth Streets, N.W. His portraits are excellent. 

1. Samuel Etting. Attributed to Wood. 

Penn. Academy of the Fine Arts. 

2. Andrew Jackson. Cabinet size oil painting. 

3. Andrew Jackson. "Engraved by Longacre from an 
original miniature by J. Wood. B. O. Tyler, Wash- 
ington City, 1824." 

4. Henry Clay. Cabinet size oil painting. Lithographed 
in 1825 by A. Newsam. 

5. Portrait of an Unknown Man. Painted in water color 
mounted on wood. Signed "Painted by J. Wood." 
Inscription on the reverse: "Presented to Edith 
McPherson by Mrs. Abby Wood 1839." 

Miss Bertha E. Perrie, Washington, D, C. 

Flourished 1757 •, New York and Philadelphia. 
Painter of cabinet sized portraits. 

WooLLEY was an Englishman who came to the United 
States about 1797. "His best work," wrote Dunlap, 
"was Archy Gifford's sign at Newark, a fox hunt, 
doubtless copied from a print." 


Anne H. Wharton quotes the story about Mary 

WooUey — Wrench: 176 


Wrench from Charles Wilson Peale's autobiographical 
notes that is referred to in the present volume under 
Polly Rench. 

WRIGHT, Joseph 

b. July i6^ i75^y Bordentowriy N. J,; d. lygj-, Philadelphia. 

Portrait painter. 

Joseph Wright was the son of Mrs. Wright the 
modeller in wax. Mrs. Wright took her family to Lon- 
don about 1782, where Joseph received lessons from 
Henry Hoppner, who married his sister, and from 
Benjamin West. He drew a "miniature profile likeness" 
of Washington unknown to the sitter during church 
service at St. Paul's, New York and this sketch was etched 
and printed on small cards. Washington appointed him 
first draughtsman and die sinker to the mint. He de- 
signed the first United States coins. See C. H. Hart's 
article in the "Pennsylvania Magazine of History," 


Wright: 176 



Acres, John Edward 
Agate, Alfred T. 
Akin, James 
Allen, Sarah Lockhart 
Allston, Washington 
Ames, Daniel F. 
Ames, Ezra 
Ames, Julius R. 
Anderson, Alexander 
Andre, John 
Andrews, Ambrose 
Annelli, Francesco 
Armstrong, William G. 
Atherton, E. 

Badger, Joseph W. 
Baker, George Augustus 
Baker, George Augustus, Jr. 
Baldwin, William 
Ball, Thomas 

Barbiere-Walbonne, Jacques 
Barker, M. 
Barralet, John James 
Barrett, Thomas E. 
Beard, George 

Benbridge, Henry 
Bingham, George Caleb 
Birch, B. 
Birch, Thomas 
Birch, William Russell 
Bishop, Thomas 
Blanchard, Mrs. Eliza H. 
Blanchard, Washington 
Bogardus, Mrs. William 
Bogardus, William 
Bolman, Miss 
Bounetheau, Henry Brintnel! 





Brewster, John 



Bridport, Hugh 



Brodeau, Anna Maria 



Brooks, Samuel 



Browere, Alburtis D. 0. 



Brown, Abby Mason 



Brown, G. 



Brown, George Loring 



Brown, Henry I. 



Brown, John Henry 



Brown, Mather 



Brown, "Mysterious" 



Browning, Mrs. 



Burlin, Richard 


Calyo, Nicolino Vicompte 

de 22 


Carlin, John 



Catlin, George 



Charles, S. M. 


Luc 7 






8 Clark, Alvan 

8 Clonney, James Goodwyn 

8 Clow, J. 

8 Collas, Louis D. 

9 CoUes, J. 

9-10 Comingo, Brown 

10 Cooper, James 

10 Cooper, Peregrine F. 

10-13 Copley, John Singleton 

13 Corne, Michaele Felice 

13 Cummings, Thomas Sier 
Cushman, George Hewitt 

Dalton, E. 

De Brehan, Marchioness 









Denning, Charlotte 

Dewey, S. 23' 

Dickinson, Anson 34- 

Dickinson, Daniel 

Dodge, Edward Samuel 

Dodge, John Wood 3^- 

Doyfe, William M. S. 

Drexel, Francis Martin 


Dubourjal, Savinien Ednie 

Duncan, Mrs. See Anna Clay- 

poole Peale 
Duncan, James 
Dunkerley, Joseph 
Dunlap, Wiiliam 38- 

Durand, Asher Brown 41- 

Du Simitiere, Pierre Eugene 42- 
Duval, Ambrose 
Duvivier and Son 

Eager, William 

Earl or Earle, James 

Earl or Earle, Ralph 

Earl or Earle, Ralph E. W'. 44- 

Edwards, Thomas 

Eichholtz, Eicholtz or Eikholtz, 

Eldbridge, C. W. 45- 

Elliott or Elliot, Charles Lor- 

Ellis, Salathiel 
Elouis, Jean Pierre Henri 
Ellsworth, J. S. 
Emmons, Alexander H. 
Evans, John T. 
Evers, John 



Fairchild, Louis 48- 

Fanshaw, Samuel Raymond 48- 

Fette, Henry Gerhard 

Field, Robert 49- 

Finn, Henry J. 

Flagg, Josiah, Jr. 

Florimont, Austin 

Folsom, Mrs. C. A. 

Folwell, Samuel 

33 Foulis, R. 54 

-34 Eraser, Charles 54~7o 

-35 Freeman, George I'^l'^ 

35 Frothingham, Miss Sarah C. 71 

35 Fulton, Robert y^'T^ 
-36 Furnass, John Mason 72 

36 German, John D. 73 

36 Gerry, Samuel L. 73 

37 Gillespie, J. H. 73 
Gimber, Stephen H. 73 
Gimbrede, Thomas 74 

38 Girault 74 
38 Godding, William C. 74 

-41 Goodridge, Sarah 74-75 

-42 Greath 75-76 

-43 Greiner, Christopher 76 

43 Griffing, Martin 76 

43 Guillette, Madame J. 76 

43 Haag, C. 77 

44 Haines, William 77 

44 Hall, Ann 77-78 
-45 Hall, Henry Bryan 78 

45 Hancock, Nathaniel l'^~19 
Hansell, George H. 79 

45 Harkins, Robert 79 

46 Harvey, George 79-80 
Hathaway, J. 80 

46 Hazlitt, John 80-81 

46 Heidemans, Henri 82 

47 Henri, Pierre or Peter 82 

47 Herrick, Henry W. 82 

48 Hervier, Auguste 82-83 
48 Hill, Pamela E. 83 

48 Hillyer, William 83 
Hite, George H. 83 

-49 Homan, S. V. 84 

-49 Hope, Thomas W. 84 

49 Howes, Samuel P. 84 
-53 Hudson, William, Jr. 84 

53 Huntington, Daniel 84-85 


'>3 Ingham, Charles Cromwell 85 

53 Tnman, Henry 85-87 

54 Inman, John O'Brian 87 


Jackson, F^dwin W. 


Miller, Godfred 


Jarvis, Charles Wesley 


Miller, William H. 


Jarvis, John Wesley 




Jocelyn, Nathaniel 


Morein, J. A. 


Jones, William F. 


Morse, Samuel Finlev 



Jonett, Matthew Harris 



Munger, Caroline 
Munger, George 



Kearney, Francis 


Kellog, Minor K. 



Newcombe, George W. 


Kelly, Thomas 


Newport, J. W. 


Kimberly, James H. 


King, Samuel 


Officer, Thomas S. 


Knight, Charles 



O'Hara, Miss 


Krimmel, John Lewis 


Otis, Bass 




Parisen, Philip 


La Farge, John 


Parissen, William D. 


Lalanne, Mary El. 


Parker, Thomas H. 


Lamhdin, James Reid 


Parsell, Abraham 


Lamont, Daniel G. 


Parsell, J. H. 


Leslie, Charles Robert 



Partridge, Joseph 





Peale, Anna Claypoole 



Linen, George 



Peale, Charles Willson 



Livermore, Mrs. 


Peale, James 



Livingston, Harriet 


Peale, Raphaelle 



Longacre, James Barton 



Peale, Rembrandt 



Lord, Phoebe Griffin 


Peale, Sarah M. 


Lovett, William 



Pease, C. W. 


Lund, Theodore 


Pelham, Henry 
Penny, L. P. 



Mackintosh, Miss S. B. 


Persico, Gennarino 




Petticolas, Edward F. 


McDougal, John A. 


Petticolas, Philip A. 


McPherson, W. J. 


Pine, Robert Edge 


Malbone, Edward Greene 



Plantou, Mrs. 


Mapes, James Jay 

1 1 

Porter, John S. 


Maras, M. 

1 1 

Pratt, Matthew 


Marchant, Edward Dalton 

1 1 

Pratt, Robert M. 



1 1 

Purinton, j. 




Mercer, William 


Ram age, John 



Metcalf, Eliab 

1 12- 


Rench, Miss Polly 


Mever, Henry Hoppner 


Richardson, Mrs. C. S. 


Mifflin, J. H. 


Caroline Schetky 

Miles, Edward 



Rider, Alexander 



Miller and Hillyer 


Roberts, John 



Robertson, Alexander 134 

Robertson, Archibald 135-136 

Robertson, Walter 136-137 

Robinson, John 137 

Rogers 137 

Rogers, Charles 138 

Rogers, Nathaniel 138 

Rowand, William 138 

Russell, Moses B. 139 

Russell, W. C. 139 

Sanford, Isaac 139 

Sargent, Henry 139 

Sartain, John 1 39-1 40 

Saunders, Sophia 140 

Savage, Edward 140 

Schetky, Caroline 140-141. 

Schoener, C. T. 141 

Seager 141 

Seager, Mrs. and Miss 141 

Seaman, Charles 141 

Sel, Jean B. 141 

Shaftenbeng, Lewis I42 
Sharpies, Mrs. (Ellen) Jamesi 42-1 43 

Shepherd, T. S. 143 

Shumway, Henry Colton I43-144 

Simes, Mary Jane I44 

Smith, James P. 144 

Smith, John Rubens 145 

Smith, William Good 145 

Southward, George I45 

Southworth, Nathaniel 146 

Staigg, Richard Morrell 1 45-1 47 

Stevens, George W. 147 
Stoughton, Mrs. See Anna 

C. Peale 

Stuart, Gilbert 148 

Sully, Lawrence 148-1 49 

Sully, Rosalie Kemble 149 

Sully, Thomas 150-152 

Sully, Thomas Wilcocks 152 

Taylor 152 

Tetley, William Birchall 152-153 

Thomas, C. H. 153 

Thompson, William John 
Thompson, John 
Thornton, William i 

Thornton, Mrs. William. 

See Anna Brodeau 
Tiebout, Mademoiselle 
Tisdale, Elkanah 
Torrey, Manasseh Cutler 
Trott, Benjamiin i 

Trumbull, John i 

Tucker, Benjamin 
Twibill, George W. i 











Vail, Miss A. D. 165 

Vaillant, Madame 165 

Valentine, William 165-166 
Valee, Jean Francois de La 166 

Vanderlyn, John 167 

Vandyck, James ' 167 

Verstille, William 167-168 

Walters, John 168 

Warren, Asa 168 

Warwell 168 

Washburn, Mrs. H. B. See 

Caroline Munger 

Watson, John 169 

Weinedel, Carl 169 

Wellmore, E. 169-170 

Wentworth 170 

Wenzler, A. H. 170 
Wertmiiller, Adolph Ulric 170-171 

West, Benjamin 171 

West, William Edward 171-172 

Weston, Mrs. Marv 172 

Wheeler, W. R. ' 172 

White, John Blake 172-173 

Williams, Henry 173 

Wilson, John T. 173 

Wilson, Matthew 174 

Wood, Joseph 174-175 

Woolley 175 
Wrench, Mary. See also 

Polly Rench 175-176 

Wright, Joseph 176